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Testbank for Methods in Behavioral Research (13th Edition) by Paul C. Cozby

By: Scott Bates , Paul C. Cozby
ISBN-10: 1259676986
/ ISBN-13: 9781259676987

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Scott Bates , Paul C. Cozby
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Table of Contents

Contents
Preface xii
About the Authors xix
1 SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF BEHAVIOR 1
Importance of Research Methods 2
Ways of Knowing 4
Goals of Behavioral Science 8
Basic and Applied Research 12
Study Terms 18
Review Questions 18
Activities 18
Answers 19
2 WHERE TO START 20
Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Predictions 21
Sources of Ideas 22
Types of Research Reports 28
Exploring Past Research 35
Study Terms 44
Review Questions 44
Answers 44
3 ETHICS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH 45
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment 46
Historical Context of Current Ethical Standards 48
APA Ethics Code 49
Assessment of Risks and Benefits 51
Informed Consent 54
The Importance of Debriefing 59
Institutional Review Boards 60
Research with Nonhuman Animal Subjects 62
Being an Ethical Researcher: The Issue of
Misrepresentation 64
Conclusion: Risks and Benefits Revisited 68
Study Terms 71
Review Questions 71
Activities 71
Answers 73
4 FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ISSUES 74
Validity: An Introduction 75
Variables 75
Operational Definitions of Variables 76
Relationships Between Variables 78
Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods 83
Experimental Methods: Additional Considerations 92
Evaluating Research: Summary of the Three Validities 96
Study Terms 97
Review Questions 98
Activities 98
Answers 100
5 MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS 101
Reliability of Measures 102
Construct Validity of Measures 107
Reactivity of Measures 110
Variables and Measurement Scales 111
Study Terms 117
Review Questions 117
Activities 117
Answers 118
6 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS 119
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches 120
Naturalistic Observation 121
Systematic Observation 124
Case Studies 127
Archival Research 128
Study Terms 133
Review Questions 134
Activities 134
Answers 135
7 ASKING PEOPLE ABOUT THEMSELVES: SURVEY RESEARCH 136
Why Conduct Surveys? 137
Constructing Questions to Ask 139
Responses to Questions 143
Finalizing the Survey Instrument 146
Administering Surveys 147
Survey Designs to Study Changes Over Time 150
Sampling From a Population 151
Sampling Techniques 153
Evaluating Samples 156
Reasons for Using Convenience Samples 159
Study Terms 161
Review Questions 162
Activities 162
Answers 163
8 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 164
Confounding and Internal Validity 165
Basic Experiments 166
Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions 171
Study Terms 180
Review Questions 180
Activities 180
Answers 181
9 CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS 182
Selecting Research Participants 183
Manipulating the Independent Variable 184
Measuring the Dependent Variable 190
Additional Controls 194
Final Planning Considerations 197
Analyzing and Interpreting Results 200
Communicating Research to Others 200
Study Terms 202
Review Questions 202
Activities 203
Answers 204
10 COMPLEX EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 205
Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 206
Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs 208
Outcomes of a 2 × 2 Factorial Design 213
Assignment Procedures and Factorial Designs 216
Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable 218
Factorial Designs with Three or More Independent Variables 219
Study Terms 222
Review Questions 222
Activities 223
Answers 223
11 SINGLE-CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH 224
Single-Case Experimental Designs 225
Quasi-Experimental Designs 229
Developmental Research Designs 238
Study Terms 243
Review Questions 243
Activities 244
12 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION 246
Scales of Measurement: A Review 247
Describing Results 248
Frequency Distributions 250
Descriptive Statistics 252
Graphing Relationships 253
Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of Relationships 255
Effect Size 260
Regression Equations 261
Multiple Correlation/Regression 262
The Third-Variable Problem 264
Structural Equation Modeling 265
Study Terms 267
Review Questions 267
Activities 268
Answers 269
13 UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: STATISTICAL INFERENCE 270
Samples and Populations 271
Inferential Statistics 272
Null and Research Hypotheses 272
Probability and Sampling Distributions 273
Group Differences: The t and F Tests 276
Type I and Type II Errors 282
Choosing a Significance Level 285
Interpreting Nonsignificant Results 286
Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis 288
The Importance of Replications 289
Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient 289
Computer Analysis of Data 289
Selecting the Appropriate Statistical Test 290
Study Terms 293
Review Questions 294
Activities 294
Answers 295
14 GENERALIZATION 296
Generalizing to Other Populations 297
Generalizing Across Methods 303
Supporting Good External Validity 305
The Importance of Replications 306
Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviews and Meta-analyses 310
Using Research to Improve Lives 312
Study Terms 313
Review Questions 314
Activities 314
APPENDIX A: REPORTING RESEARCH 315
Introduction 315
Writing Your Report 316
Formatting Your Report 322
Organization of the Report 324
The Use of Headings 335
Citing and Referencing Sources 336
Abbreviations 345
Reporting Numbers and Statistics 346
Conclusion: Written Reports 348
Paper and Poster Presentations 348
Sample Paper 352
APPENDIX B: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS
AND CODE OF CONDUCT 371
Preamble 371
General Principles 372
Standard 8: Research and Publication 374
APPENDIX C: STATISTICAL TESTS 378
Descriptive Statistics 378
Statistical Significance and Effect Size 381
Glossary 399
References 407
Index 419

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