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Testbank for Criminal Behavior: A Psychological Approach (11th Edition) by Curt R. Bartol

By: Curt R. Bartol , Anne M. Bartol
ISBN-10: 134163745
/ ISBN-13: 9780134163741

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Curt R. Bartol , Anne M. Bartol
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Table of content:

Chapter 1 Introduction to Criminal Behavior 1
Chapter Objectives 1
Theories of Crime 2
Theoretical Perspectives on Human Nature 4
Disciplinary Perspectives in Criminology 6
Sociological Criminology 7
Psychological Criminology 8
Box 1-1: Hate or Bias Crimes 8
Psychiatric Criminology 10
Defining and Measuring Crime 12
Uniform Crime Reporting System 12
Box 1-2: The Problem of Internet-Facilitated Crime 17
Self-Report Studies 19
Victimization Surveys 21
Juvenile Delinquency 23
Recap: Defining Crime and Delinquency 24
Summary and Conclusions 26
Key Concepts 27 • Review Questions 27
Chapter 2 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Developmental Risk Factors 28
Chapter Objectives 28
Cumulative Risk Model 29
Developmental Cascade Model 30
Social Environment Risk Factors 32
Poverty 32
Peer Rejection and Association with Antisocial Peers 33
Preschool Experiences 36
After-School Care 37
Academic Failure 37
Parental and Family Risk Factors 38
Single-Parent Households 38
Parental Styles and Practices 39
Parental Monitoring 42
Box 2-1: Monitoring, Middle School, and Family Relationships 42
Influence of Siblings 44
Parental Psychopathology 44
Psychological Risk Factors 45
Lack of Attachment 45
Lack of Empathy 46
Cognitive and Language Deficiencies 48
Intelligence and Delinquency 49
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 51
Box 2-2: ADHD: Which Treatment to Use? 52
ADHD and Criminal Behavior 53
Conduct Disorder 54
Oppositional Defiant Disorder 55
Summary and Conclusions 56
Key Concepts 58 • Review Questions 58
Chapter 3 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Biological Factors 59
Chapter Objectives 59
Genetics and Antisocial Behavior 60
Behavior Genetics 60
Studies of Twins 61
The Twins’ Early Development Study 63
Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development 64
Adoption Studies 64
Molecular Genetics 66
Psychophysiological Factors 66
Temperament 67
Environmental Risk Factors 70
Neurotoxins 70
Lead 71
Cadmium 72
Manganese 73
Mercury (Methlymercury) 73
Protective Properties of Micronutrients 74
Prenatal and Postnatal Malnutrition 75
Box 3-1: Malnutrition in Infants 75
Nicotine, Alcohol, and Drug Exposure 76
Traumatic Brain Injury 78
Brain Development Abnormalities 79
Hormones and Neurotransmitters 80
Neuropsychological Factors 80
Summary and Conclusions 81
Key Concepts 82 • Review Questions 82
Chapter 4 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Learning and Situational Factors 83
Chapter Objectives 83
Behaviorism 85
Skinner’s Theory of Behavior 86
Behaviorism as a Method of Science 86
Behaviorism as a Perspective of Human Nature 87
Skinnerian Concepts 87
Operant Learning and Crime 88
Social Learning 89
Expectancy Theory 90
Imitational Aspects of Social Learning 91
Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory 92
Frustration-Induced Criminality 94
The Socialized and Individual Offender 94
Frustration-Induced Riots 95
Frustration and Crime 96
Situational Instigators and Regulators of Criminal Behavior 96
Authority as an Instigator of Criminal Behavior 97
Box 4-1: National Security Interrogations—Psychology’s Role 100
Deindividuation 101
The Stanford Prison Experiment 103
The BBC Prison Study 104
Deindividuation and Crowd Violence 105
The Bystander Effect 106
Box 4-2: Do Security Cameras Affect Bystander Apathy? 108
Moral Disengagement 109
Summary and Conclusions 110
Key Concepts 111 • Review Questions 112
Chapter 5 Human Aggression and Violence 113
Chapter Objectives 113
Defining Aggression 114
Hostile and Instrumental Aggression 115
Box 5-1: Aggression in Recent High Profile Cases 115
Interpretation by Victim 117
Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression 117
Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic Viewpoint 118
Ethological Viewpoints 118
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis 119
Weapons Effect 120
Cognitive-Neoassociation Model 121
Excitation Transfer Theory 121
Displaced Aggression Theory 122
Social Learning Factors in Aggression and Violence 122
Modeling 123
Observation Modeling 124
Cognitive Models of Aggression 125
Cognitive Scripts Model 125
Hostile Attribution Model 125
Box 5-2: Dealing With Anger—What Works and for Whom? 128
The General Aggression Model 129
I³ Theory 130
Overt and Covert Acts of Aggression 130
Reactive and Proactive Forms of Aggression 131
Gender Differences in Aggression 132
Effects of Media Violence 133
Copycat Crime or Contagion Effect 136
Box 5-3: Copycat Gamers 137
Summary and Conclusions 139
Key Concepts 140 • Review Questions 141
Chapter 6 Juvenile Delinquency 142
Chapter Objectives 142
Definitions of Delinquency 143
Legal Definition 143
Social Definition 144
Psychological Definitions 144
Nature and Extent of Juvenile Offending 145
Status Offenses 147
The Serious Delinquent 148
Gender Differences in Juvenile Offending 148
Developmental Theories of Delinquency 151
Moffitt’s Developmental Theory 152
Box 6-1: Emerging Adulthood as a Developmental Stage 154
Steinberg’s Dual Systems Model 157
Coercion Developmental Theory 158
Callous-Unemotional Trait Theory 160
Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment of Juvenile Offending 161
Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies 161
Characteristics of Successful Programs 162
Box 6-2: Gender Responsive Programming 163
Classification of Prevention and Treatment Programs 165
Primary Prevention 167
Selective or Secondary Prevention 168
Box 6-3: The Fast Track Experiment 169
Treatment Approaches 170
Summary and Conclusions 175
Key Concepts 177 • Review Questions 177
Chapter 7 Psychopathy 178
Chapter Objectives 178
What is a Psychopath? 179
Antisocial Personality Disorder 179
Examples of Primary Psychopaths 180
Behavioral Descriptions 181
Behavioral Characteristics 182
Psychological Testing Differences 183
Psychopaths and Mental Disorders 183
Psychopaths and Suicide 183
Other Principal Traits 184
The Criminal Psychopath 185
Prevalence of Criminal Psychopathy 186
Offending Patterns of Criminal Psychopaths 186
Recidivism of Criminal Psychopaths 187
Psychological Measures of Psychopathy 187
The PCL-R 188
Criticisms of the PCL-R 189
Box 7-1: Corporate Psychopaths 189
Core Factors of Psychopathy 190
The Two-Factor Position 190
The Three-Factor Position 191
The Four-Factor Model 191
The Boldness Factor 191
The Meanness Factor 192
The Female Psychopath 192
Racial/Ethnic Differences 193
Juvenile Psychopathy 194
Can Juvenile Psychopathy Be Identified? 194
Box 7-2: Treating Adolescents with Psychopathic Features 195
Ethical Considerations 196
Measures of Juvenile Psychopathy 197
Neurobiological Factors and Psychopathy 198
Genetic Factors 198
Neuropsychology and Psychopathy 198
Central Nervous System Differences 199
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Research 202
Autonomic Nervous System Research 203
The Dual-Process Model of Psychopathy 206
Childhood of the Psychopath 207
Treatment of Criminal Psychopaths 208
Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychopathic
Summary and Conclusions 210
Key Concepts 212 • Review Questions 212
Chapter 8 Crime and Mental Disorders 213
Chapter Objectives 213
Defining Mental Illness 216
The DSM 216
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders 217
Bipolar Disorder 218
Major Depressive Disorder 219
Antisocial Personality Disorder 219
Box 8-1: Does Serious Mental Disorder Cause Crime? 220
Competency and Criminal Responsibility 221
Incompetency to Stand Trial 221
Criminal Responsibility 224
Insanity Standards 227
Guilty but Mentally Ill 230
Unique Defenses and Conditions 231
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 231
Dissociation 233
Dissociative Identity Disorder 234
Dissociative Amnesia 235
Mental Disorder and Violence 236
Research on the Violence of the Mentally Disordered 237
The MacArthur Research Network 238
Police and the Mentally Disordered 239
Mentally Disordered Inmates 239
Dangerousness and the Assessment of Risk 241
The Tarasoff Case 241
Violence Risk Factors and Measures 243
Summary and Conclusions 245
Key Concepts 246 • Review Questions 246
Chapter 9 Homicide, Assault, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence 247
Chapter Objectives 247
Definitions 249
Criminal Homicide 250
Aggravated Assault 251
Demographic and Other Factors of Homicide 251
Race/Ethnicity 252
Gender 252
Age 253
Socioeconomic Status 253
Circumstances 253
Weapons 253
Box 9-1: Guns, Crime, and Cumulative Risk 255
Psychological Aspects of Criminal Homicide 256
General Altercation Homicide 257
Felony Commission Homicides 258
Juvenile Homicide Offenders 259
Box 9-2: Boys, Girls, and Homicide: Why and How do They Do It? 260
Psychological Characteristics of Juvenile Murderers 260
Treatment of Juveniles Who Kill 262
Intimate Partner Violence 262
IPV among Older Adults 264
IPV among Hispanics 264
Same Sex or Nonheterosexual IPV 265
IPV within Law Enforcement and Military Families 266
Psychological and Demographic Characteristics of Abusers 267
Family Violence 268
Prevalence 269
Victims 269
Child Maltreatment 271
Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children 273
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy 274
Abusive Head Trauma 275
Infanticide 276
Neonaticide 276
Filicide 277
Elderly Abuse 278
Sibling-to-Sibling Violence 280
Child-to-Parent Violence 281
Multiassaultive Families 282
The Cycle of Violence 283
The Effects of Family Violence on Children 284
Summary and Conclusions 285
Key Concepts 286 • Review Questions 287
Chapter 10 Multiple Murder, School and Workplace Violence 288
Chapter Objectives 288
Investigative Psychology 289
Forms of Profiling 290
Psychological Profiling 290
Suspect-Based Profiling 291
Geographical Profiling 291
Crime Scene Profiling 292
Equivocal Death Analysis 297
Multiple Murders 298
Definitions 299
Serial Murders 300
Choice of Victims and Modus Operandi 301
Geographical Location of Serial Killing 302
Ethnic and Racial Characteristics 302
Risk Factors and Psychological Motives 303
Research on Backgrounds 303
Female Serial Killers 304
Juvenile Serial Killers 305
Mass Murderers 305
Public Mass Shootings 306
A Mass Murder Typology 308
School Violence 310
School Shootings 311
Box 10-1: Safety Drills in Schools: Unanticipated Consequences 312
Psychological Characteristics of School Shooters 314
Workplace Violence 315
Categories of Workplace Violence 316
Perpetrators of Workplace Violence 319
Summary and Conclusions 320
Key Concepts 321 • Review Questions 322
Chapter 11 Psychology of Modern Terrorism 323
Chapter Objectives 323
Definitions and Examples 325
Classification of Terrorist Groups 328
A Terrorist Typology 330
Followers and Leaders: Who Joins and Who Leads 330
Why Do They Join? 331
Quest for Significance Theory 332
Terror Management Theory 333
Suicidal Terrorism 333
Becoming a Terrorist: The Process of Radicalization 334
Terrorist Leaders 335
Lone Wolf Terrorists 336
Boston Marathon Bombers 337
Box 11-1: The Marathon Bombing and Beyond 337
Fort Hood Shooter 338
The Times Square Bombing Attempt 338
The Psychosocial Context of Terrorism 340
Terrorist Motives and Justifications 341
Additional Disengagement Practices 342
Psychological Effects and Nature of Terrorism 343
Cognitive Restructuring 343
Moral Development 343
Summary and Conclusions 346
Key Concepts 347 • Review Questions 347
Chapter 12 Sexual Assault 348
Chapter Objectives 348
Definitions and Statistics 349
Sexual Assault in Date and Acquaintance Relationships 351
Box 12-1: Campus Sexual Assault 352
Incidence and Prevalence of Rape 353
Impact of Sexual Assault on Survivors 354
Psychological Effects 354
Physical Injury 355
Sexual Assault Vulnerability Factors 356
Situational Factors 356
Location 356
Age of Victims 356
Relationship Factors 357
Consumption of Alcohol 357
History of Victimization 357
Risk Taking Behaviors 357
Characteristics of Sexual Offenders: Who Offends? 358
Ages of Sex Offenders 359
Recidivism and Offending History 359
Applying Crime Scene Analysis to Predictions of Recidivism 360
Attitudes and Myths That Support Rape and Other Sexual Assaults 362
Cognitive-Perceptual Distortions in Communication 363
The Influence of Pornography 363
Classification of Rape Patterns 365
Massachusetts Treatment Center Classification System 366
Box 12-2: Sexual Burglary 368
The MTC: R3 368
MTC Version 4 370
The Groth Typology 371
Treatment of Sex Offenders 372
Summary and Conclusions 374
Key Concepts 375 • Review Questions 375
Chapter 13 Sexual Abuse of Children and Youth 376
Chapter Objectives 376
Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sex Abuse 378
Box 13-1: Sexual Abuse: The Shame of Juvenile Corrections 379
Situational and Victimization Characteristics 381
Incest 383
Types of Sexual Contact 383
Psychological Effects of Child Sexual Victimization 384
Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders 384
Age and Gender 385
Selection of Victims 386
Backgrounds 386
Interpersonal and Intimacy Deficits 387
Cognitive Distortions 388
Neurocognitive Functions 388
Recidivism and Risk Assessment 389
Risk Assessment 390
Classification of Male Child Sex Offender Patterns 391
The MTC: CM3 392
The Groth Classification Model 394
Female Sex Offender Typology 395
Internet-Facilitated Sexual Offending 396
Who Are the Offenders? 396
Who Are the Child Victims? 397
Online Sex Offenders Interested in Adolescents 398
Sex Trafficking 398
Treatment of Child Sex Offenders 399
Summary and Conclusions 401
Key Concepts 402 • Review Questions 402
Chapter 14 Burglary, Home Invasions, Thefts, and “White-Collar” Offenses 403
Chapter Objectives 403
Burglary 405
Characteristics of Burglary 405
Who Commits Burglary? 406
Burglary Cues and Selected Targets 407
Burglar Cognitive Processes 408
Entry Strategies 409
How Far Do Burglars Travel? 410
Gender Differences in Methods and Patterns 410
Property Taken and Disposed 410
Motives 412
Burglar Typologies 413
Psychological Impact of Burglary 414
Home Invasions 415
Larceny and Motor Vehicle Theft 416
Motor Vehicle Theft 416
Fraud and Identity Theft 417
Box 14-1: Identity Theft—Anyone Can Be Victimized 418
Shoplifting 420
Who Shoplifts? 422
Motives 424
Shoplifting by Proxy 425
Shoplifting as an Occupation 425
Methods of Shoplifting 426
Kleptomania: Fact or Fiction? 426
White-Collar and Occupational Crime 427
Green’s Four Categories of Occupational Crime 428
Box 14-2: Political Crimes—Unexamined Issues 429
Prevalence and Incidence of Occupational Crime 430
Corporate Crime 430
Justifications and Neutralizations 432
Individual Occupational Crime 433
Employee Theft 433
Summary and Conclusions 435
Key Concepts 436 • Review Questions 436
Chapter 15 Violent Economic Crime, Cybercrime, and Crimes of Intimidation 437
Chapter Objectives 437
Robbery 438
Bank Robbery 439
Amateurs and Professionals 440
Commercial Robbery 442
Street Robbery 442
Motives and Cultural Influences 443
Robbery by Groups 444
Cybercrime 445
Box 15-1: Cybercrime—Heists and Intrusions 446
Privacy Concerns and Cybercrime Laws 447
Psychological Characteristics of Cybercriminals 448
Stalking 449
Categories of Stalking 450
Cyberstalking 451
Cyberbullying 452
Hostage-Taking Offenses 454
Instrumental and Expressive Hostage Taking 454
FBI Categories of Hostage Taking 454
Strategies for Dealing with Hostage Takers 456
The Stockholm Syndrome 457
Rules for Hostages to Follow 457
Arson 459
Incidence and Prevalence 459
Developmental Stages of Firesetting 460
Persistent and Repetitive Firesetting among Adults 461
Female Arsonists 462
Behavioral Typologies and Trajectories 463
Psychological Disorders 464
Summary and Conclusions 465
Key Concepts 466 • Review Questions 466
Chapter 16 Substance Abuse and Crime 467
Chapter Objectives 467
Juvenile Drug Use 468
Who Is Selling to Juveniles? 470
Gender Differences in Juvenile Drug Use 471
Consistent Findings on Illict Drug Use 471
Tripartite Conceptual Model 474
Major Categories of Drugs 475
Tolerance and Dependence 476
The Hallucinogens 477
Marijuana 477
How Is Marijuana Prepared? 478
Synthetic Marijuana 479
Synthetic Cathinones 480
Salvia 480
Cannabis and Crime 480
Phencyclidine (PCP) 482
PCP and Crime 482
The Stimulants 482
Amphetamines 482
Methamphetamine 483
Other Stimulants with Similar Effects 483
Cocaine and Its Derivatives 484
Psychological Effects 485
Adverse Physical Effects 485
Stimulants and Crime 485
Crack Cocaine 486
Crack and Crime 487
MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) 487
Narcotic Drugs 488
Heroin 488
Box 16-1: Prescription Medications: Fraudulent Distribution 489
Heroin and Crime 490
Fentanyl 491
Other Narcotic Drugs 491
OxyContin® and Vicodin® 491
OxyContin®, Vicodin®, and Crime 492
The Club Drugs: Sedative Hypnotic Compounds 492
Ketamine 493
Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) 493
Rohypnol 494
Alcohol 494
Psychological Effects 495
Alcohol, Crime, and Delinquency 496
Substance Abuse and Violence 497
Summary and Conclusions 498
Key Concepts 500 • Review Questions 500
Glossary 501
Cases Cited 514
References 515
Author Index 609
Subject Index 633


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