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Testbank for Cognition (5th Edition), Mark H. Ashcraft, Gabriel A. Radvansky

By: Mark H. Ashcraft, Gabriel A. Radvansky
ISBN-10: 136050468
/ ISBN-13: 9780136050469

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Mark H. Ashcraft, Gabriel A. Radvansky
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Table of contents:

1. Cognitive Psychology : An Introduction
Thinking About Thinking
Memory and Cognition Defined
An Introductory History of Cognitive Psychology
Anticipations of Psychology
Early Psychology
Behaviorism and Neobehaviorism
Dissatifaction with Behaviorism: The Winds of Change
Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing
The New Direction
The Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology
2. The Cognitive Science Approach
Guiding Principles
Themes
Measuring Information Processes
Getting Started
Time and Accuracy Measures
Guiding Analogies
The Information-Processing Approach
The Standard Theory
A Process Model
The Strict Information Processing Approach
Some Difficulties
The Modern Cognitive Approach: Cognitive Science
Updating the Standard Theory
Fixing the Narrowness
Neurocognition: The Brain and Cognition Together
Basic Neurology
Brain Anatomy
Principles of Functioning
Split Brain Research and Lateralization
Methods of Investigation
Neural Net Models: Connectionism
3. Perception and Pattern Recognition
Visual Perception
Gathering Visual Information
Visual Sensory Memory
The Early parts of a Fixation
A Summary for Visual Sensory Memory
Trans-saccadic Memory
Pattern Recognition: Written Language
Gestalt Grouping Principles
The Template Approach
Visual Feature Detection
Beyond Features: Conceptually Driven Pattern Recognition
Connectionist Modeling
Object Recognition and Agnosia
Recognition by Components
Agnosia
Implications for Cognitive Science
Auditory Perception
Auditory Sensory Memory
Auditory Pattern Recognition
4. Attention
Multiple Meaning of Attention
Basics of Attention
Basic Input Attentional Processes
Alertness and Arousal
Orienting Response and Attention Capture
Spotlight Attention and Visual Search
Contrasting Input and Controlled Attention
Hemineglect: An Attention Deficit
Controlled, Voluntary Attention
Selective Attention and the Cocktail Party Effect
Selection Models
Attention as a Mental Resource
Automatic and Conscious Processing Theories
A Synthesis for Attention and Automaticity
Disadvantages of Automaticity
5. Short-Term Working Memory
Short-Term Memory: A Limited Capacity Bottleneck
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two
Forgetting from Short-Term Memory
Short-Term Memory Retrieval
Serial Position Effects
Short-Term Memory Scanning: The Sternberg Task
Working Memory
The Components of Working Memory
The Central Executive
The Phonological Loop
The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
The Episodic Buffer
Assessing Working Memory
The Dual Task Method
Working Memory Span
The Role of Working Memory in Cognition
Working Memory and Attention
Working Memory and Long-Term Memory
Working Memory and Reasoning
Sometimes Small Working Memory Spans are Better
6. Learning and Remembering
Preliminary Issues
Mnemonic Devices
The Ebbinghaus Tradition of Memory Research
Metamemory
Storing Information in Episodic Memory
Rehearsal
Frequency of Rehearsal
Two Kinds of Rehearsal
Depth of Processing
Challenges to Depth of Processing
Generation and Enactment
Organization in Storage
Imagery
Emotion and Survival Value
Context and Encoding Specificity
Retrieving Episodic Information
Decay
Interference
Retrieval Failure
Retrieval Cues
Amnesia and Implicit Memory
Dissociation of Episodic and Semantic Memory
Anterograde Amnesia
Implicit and Explicit Memory
7. Knowing
Semantic Memory
The Collins and Quillian ( and Loftus) Model
Smith’s Feature Comparison Model
Empirical Tests of Semantic Memory Models
Semantic Relatedness
Priming in Semantic Memory
Nuts and Bolts of Priming Tasks
Empirical Demonstrations of Priming
Priming in Other Tasks
Automatic and Controlled Priming
Priming Is an Implicit Process
Schemata and Scripts
Bartlett’s Research
Schemata
Scripts
Evidence of Scripts
< Context, Connectionism, and the Brain Connectionism Connectionism and the Brain 8. Using Knowledge in the Real World The Seven Sins of Memory Facts About the World The Nature of Propositions Rules for Deriving Propositions Are Propositions Real? Situation Models and Embodied Cognition Levels of Representation Remembering Facts Metamemory Source Monitoring Prospective Memory Knowing What You Know False Memories, Eyewitness Memory. and "Forgotten Memories" False Memories Integration Leading Questions and Memory Distortion The Misinformation Effect Source Misattribution and Misinformation Acceptance Stronger Memory Distortion Effects Repressed and Recovered Memories Autobiographical Memories The Bahrick Work Phenomena of Autobiographical Memory The Irony of Memory 9. Language Linguistic Universals and Functions Defining Language Language Universals Animal Communication Levels of Analysis, a Critical Distinction, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Phonology: The Sounds of Language Sounds in Isolation Combining Phonemes into Words Embodiment in Speech Perception Speech Perception and Context A Final Puzzle Syntax: The Ordering of Words and Phrases Chomsky's Transformational Grammar Limitations of the Transformational Grammar Approach The Cognitive Role of Syntax Lexical and Semantic Factors: The Meaning in Language Morphemes The Lexical Representation Case Grammar Interaction of Syntax and Semantics Evidence for the Semantic Grammar Approaches Brain and Language Language in the Intact Brain Aphasia Generalizing from Aphasia 10. Comprehension: Written and Spoken Language Getting Started: An Overview Conceptual and Rule Knowledge Traditional Comprehension Research Online Comprehension Tasks Metacomprehension Comprehension as Mental Structure Building Levels of Comprehension Reading Gaze Duration Basic Online Reading Effects A Model of Reading Summary Reference, Situation Models, and Events Reference Situation Models Events Conversation and Gesture The Structure of Conversations Cognitive Conversational Characteristics Empirical Effects in Conversation Gesture 11. Decisions, Judgments, and Reasoning Formal Logic and Reasoning Syllogisms Conditional Reasoning: If P Then Q Hypothesis Testing Decisions Decisions About Physical Differences Decisions About Symbolic Differences Decisions About Geographic Distances Decisions and Reasoning Under Uncertainty Algorithms and Heuristics Heuristics, Biases, and Fallacies The Representativeness Heuristic The Availability Heuristics The Simulation Heuristics The Undoing Heuristics: Counterfactual Reasoning Adaptive Thinking and " Fast, Frugal" Heuristics The Ongoing Debate Limitations in Reasoning Limited Domain Knowledge Limitations in Processing Resources Appendix: Algorithms for Coin Tosses and Hospital Births Coin Tosses Hospital Births 12. Problem Solving The Status of Problem-Solving Area Gestalt Psychology and Problem Solving Early Gestalt Research Difficulties in Problem Solving Insight and Analogy Insight Analogy Neurocognition in Analogy and Insight Basics of Problem Solving Characteristics of Problem Solving A Vocabulary of Problem Solving Means-End Analysis: A Fundamental Heuristic The Basics of Means-End Analysis The Tower of Hanoi General Problem Solver Improving Your Problem Solving Increase Your Domain Knowledge Automate Some Components of the Problem-Solving Solution Follow a Systematic Plan Draw Inferences Develop Subgoals Work Backward Search for Contradictions Search for Relations Among Problems Find a Different Problem Representation Stay Calm If All Else Fails, Try Practice Glossary References Photo Credits Name Index Subjet Index


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