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Test Bank for Psychology: From Science to Practice (2nd Edition) by Robert A. Baron

By: Baron
ISBN-10: 205516181
/ ISBN-13: 9780205516186

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Baron
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Table of contents:

Chapter 1: Psychology: What It Is…and What It Offers
Chapter 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception: Making Contact with the World Around Us
Chapter 4: States of Consciousness
Chapter 5: Learning: How We’re Changed by Experience
Chapter 6: Memory and Cognition: Remembering, Thinking, Deciding, Creating
Chapter 7: Human Development
Chapter 8: Motivation and Emotion
Chapter 9: Personality and Intelligence: Understanding Individual Differences
Chapter 10: Health, Stress, and Coping
Chapter 11: Mental Disorders
Chapter 12: Psychological Treatments: Reducing the Pain and Distress of Mental Disorders
Chapter 13: Social Thought and Social Behavior
Chapter 14: Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Understanding Human Behavior at Work
FULL TOC
Preface
Acknowledgements
About the Authors
ONE Psychology: What It Is… and What It Offers
The Field of Psychology: What It Is and How It Started
The Origins of Modern Psychology: Multiple Strands Come Together
Psychology: Grand Issues, Key Perspectives
Key Perspectives in Psychology: The Many Facets of Behavior
Psychology In the Twenty-First Century: Expanding Horizons
Evolutionary Psychology: A New Perspective on “Human Nature”
The Exportation of Psychology: From Science to Practice
Growing Recognition of Diversity and Commitment to a Multicultural Perspective
Psychology and the Scientific Method
The Scientific Method: Its Basic Nature
Advantages of the Scientific Method: Why Common Sense Often Leads Us Astray
The Scientific Method in Everyday Life: The Benefits of Critical Thinking
Research Methods in Psychology: How Psychologists Answer Questions About Behavior
Observation: Describing the World Around Us
Correlation: The Search for Relationships
The Experimental Method: Knowledge through Systematic Intervention
Psychology: What’s In It For You?
Using This Book: An Overview of Its Special Features
Psychology Lends a Hand: How To Study Psychology—or Any Other Subject—Effectively
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
TWO BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR
Neurons: Building Blocks of The Nervous System
Neurons: Their Basic Structure
Neurons: Their Basic Function
Neurotransmitters: Chemical Keys to the Nervous System
The Nervous System: Its Basic Structure and Functions
The Nervous System: Its Major Divisions
The Endocrine System: Chemical Regulators of Bodily Processes
The Brain: Where Consciousness Dwells
The Brain Stem: Survival Basics
The Hypothalamus, Thalamus, and Limbic System: Motivation and Emotion
The Cerebral Cortex: The Core of Complex Thought Two Minds in One Body? Our Divided Brain
How Psychologists Study the Nervous System and the Brain
The Brain and Human Behavior: Where Biology and Consciousness Meet
How the Brain Functions: A Modern View
Plasticity of the Human Brain: How the Brain Is Shaped by Experience
The Brain and Human Speech
Psychology Lends a Hand: The Potential Role of Brain Plasticity in Cognitive Processes
The Brain and Higher Mental Processes
Heredity and Behavior: Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology
Genetics: Some Basic Principles
Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Effects: Research Strategies
Evolutionary Psychology: Genes in Action
Psychology Lends a Hand: Promoting Prosocial Behavior to Reduce Aggression
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
THREE SENSATION AND PERCEPTION: MAKING CONTACT WITH THE WORLD AROUND US
Sensation: The Raw Materials of Understanding
Sensory Thresholds: How Much Stimulation is Enough?
Sensory Adaptation: “It Feels Great Once You Get Used to It!”
Vision
The Eye: Its Basic Structure
Light: The Physical Stimulus for Vision
Basic Functions of the Visual System: Acuity, Dark Adaptation, and Eye Movements
Color Vision
Vision and the Brain: Processing Visual Information
Hearing
The Ear: Its Basic Structure
Sound: The Physical Stimulus for Hearing
Pitch Perception
Sound Localization
Touch and Other Skin Senses
Pain: Its Nature and Control
Psychology Goes to Work: The Harmful Effects of Noise: Turn Down the Sound at Work and At Play!
Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses
Smell and Taste: How They Operate
Smell and Taste: Some Interesting Findings
Kinesthesis and Vestibular Sense
Perception: Putting It All Together
Perception: The Focus of Our Attention
Psychology Lends a Hand: Exceeding the Limits of Our Attention: Why Do Cell Phones Interfere with Driving?
Perception: Some Organizing Principles
Constancies and Illusions: When Perception Succeeds—and Fails
Some Key Perceptual Processes: Pattern and Distance
PSI: Perception Without Sensation?
Psi: What Is It?
Psi: Does It Really Exist?
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
FOUR STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Biological Rhythms: Tides of Life—and Conscious Experience
Circadian Rhythms: Their Basic Nature
Individual Differences in Circadian Rhythms: Are You a Morning Person or a Night Person?
Disturbances in Circadian Rhythms: Jet Lag and Graveyard- or Swing-Shift Work
Psychology Lends a Hand: Coping with Jet Lag and the “Blahs” of Graveyard-Shift Work: Some Techniques That Can Help
Waking States of Consciousness: From Controlled Processing to…Intuition
Controlled and Automatic Processing: Two Basic Modes of Thought
Intuition: Thought Outside Consciousness Awareness
Sleep: The Pause That Refreshes?
The Basic Nature of Sleep
Why Do We Sleep? The Many Functions of Sleep
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
Sleep Disorders: No Rest for Some of the Weary
Dreams: “Now Playing in Your Private, Inner Theater…”
Hypnosis: Altered State of Consciousness…Or Social Role Playing?
Hypnosis: How It’s Done and Who Is Susceptible to It
Hypnosis: Contrasting Views about Its Nature
But Yet…Evidence That Hypnotism Does Involve More Than Suggestion
Psychology Lends a Hand: Hypnosis: Effective Against Pain?
Consciousness-Altering Drugs: What They Are and What They Do
Consciousness-Altering Drugs: Some Basic Concepts
Consciousness-Altering Drugs: An Overview
Psychology Goes to Work: Drug Testing at Work—What Are Your Rights?
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
FIVE LEARNING: HOW WE’RE CHANGED BY EXPERIENCE
Classical Conditioning: Learning That Some Stimuli Signal Others
Pavlov’s Early Work on Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning: Some Basic Principles
Classical Conditioning: The Neural Basis of Learning
Classical Conditioning: Exceptions to the Rules
Classical Conditioning: A Cognitive Perspective
Classical Conditioning: Turning Principles into Action
Operant Conditioning: Learning Based On Consequences
The Nature of Operant Conditioning: Consequential Operations
PSYCHOLOGY LENDS A HAND: Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child? The Wisdom of Using Punishment with Children
Operant Conditioning: Some Basic Principles
Operant Conditioning: A Cognitive Perspective
Applying Operant Conditioning: Solving Problems of Everyday Life
Observational Learning: Learning From the Behavior and Outcomes of Others 184
Observational Learning: Some Basic Principles
Observational Learning and Aggression
Observational Learning and Culture
PSYCHOLOGY GOES TO WORK: Using Behavioral Modeling and Mental Rehearsal to Teach Computer Skills
Observational Learning: Some Practical Applications
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
SIX MEMORY AND COGNITION: REMEMBERING, THINKING, DECIDING, CREATING
Human Memory: How We Remember, Why We Forget
Memory: An Information-Processing Model—and Beyond
Our Different Memory Systems
Memory for Factual Information: Episodic and Semantic Memory
Memory for Skills: Procedural Memory
Forgetting: Largely a Matter of Interference—but What Kind of Interference?
Memory Distortion and Construction: How Memories Are Sometimes Changed—or Created
Memory in Everyday Life: Autobiographical Memory and Memory for Emotions
Psychology Goes To Work: Using Memory Principles to Boost the Fairness, Accuracy, and Favorableness of Your Own Performance Appraisals
Memory and the Brain: Evidence from Memory Impairments and Other Sources
Cognition: Thinking, Deciding, Creating
Psychology Lends a Hand: Improving Your Memory: Some Useful Steps
The Limits of Human Cognition: Why We Aren’t—and Can’t Be—as Rational as We’d Like
Thinking: The Foundation of Consciousness
Decision Making: Choosing Among Alternatives
Psychology Lends a Hand: Making Good Decisions: Avoiding Major Pitfalls
Creativity: Generating the Extraordinary
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
SEVEN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Physical Growth and Development During Childhood
The Prenatal Period
Prenatal Influences on Development
Physical Development during Our Early Years
Perceptual Development during Childhood
Cognitive Development during Childhood: Changes in Our Ability to Understand the
World around Us
Piaget’s Theory: An Overview
Piaget’s Theory: A modern Assessment
Beyond Piaget: Children’s Theory of Mind And Research on the Information-Processing Perspective
Language: Learning to Communicate
Moral Development: Reasoning about “Right” and “Wrong”
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Understanding
Evidence Concerning Kohlberg’s Theory
Social Development during Childhood: Forming Relationships with Others
Temperament: Individual Differences in Emotional Style
Attachment: The Beginnings of Love
Siblings and Friends: Key Factors in Social Development
From Gender Identity to Sex Category Constancy: How Children Come to Understand That They are Female or Male
Children’s Growing Sophistication With Respect to Gender
Psychology Lends a Hand: Helping Children Avoid the Dangers of Obesity
Gender Development: Contrasting Explanations of How It Occurs
Adolescence: Between Child and Adult
Physical Development during Adolescence
Cognitive Development during Adolescence
Social and Emotional Development during Adolescence
Development during Our Adult Years
Erikson’s Theory Revisited: The Crises of Adult Life
Physical Change during Our Adult Years
Cognitive Change during Adulthood
Social and Emotional Development during Adulthood
Death and Bereavement
Meeting Death: Facing the End with Dignity
Bereavement: Coming to Terms with the Death of Loved Ones
Psychology Goes to Work: Choosing a Career: Some “Steps That Can Help”
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
EIGHT MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Motivation: The Activation and Persistence of Behavior
Theories of Motivation: Some Major Perspectives
Psychology Lends a Hand: Managing your Own Motivation
Hunger: Regulating Our Caloric Intake
Sexual Motivation: The Most Intimate Motive
Achievement Motivation: The Desire to Excel
Intrinsic Motivation: How, Sometimes, to Turn Play Into Work
Forgiveness: When compassion Replaces the Desire for Revenge
Emotions: Their Nature, Expression, and impact
The Nature of Emotions: Some Contrasting Views
The Biological Basis of Emotions
The External Expression of Emotion: Outward Signs of Inner Feelings
Emotion and Cognition: How Feelings Shape Thought and Thought Shapes Feelings
Subjective Well-Being: Causes and Effects of Personal Happiness
Psychology Lends a Hand: Becoming a Very Happy Person
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
NINE PERSONALITY AND INTELLIGENCE: understanding Individual Differences
Personality: The Essence of What Makes Us Unique
The Psychoanalytic Approach: Messages from The Unconscious
Psychology Lends a Hand: Too Much Freud For Our Own Good? Questioning Freudian Assumptions in Everyday Life
Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Growth
Trait Theories: Seeking the Key Dimensions of Personality
Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Personality
Measuring Personality
Modern Research on Personality: Beyond Grand Theories
Psychology Goes to Work: Taking, Not Faking, Employment Tests
Intelligence: The Nature of Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence: Contrasting Views of Its Nature
Measuring Intelligence
The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Intelligence
Intelligence: Heredity, Environment, and Group Differences
Emotional Intelligence: The Feeling Side of Intelligence
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
TEN HEALTH, STRESS, AND COPING
Health Psychology: An Overview
Stress: Its Causes, Effects, and Control
Stress: Its Basic Nature
Stress: Some Major Causes
Stress: Some Major Effects
Psychology Goes to Work: Job Stress: What Can You Do to Control It
Understanding and Communicating Our Health Needs
Health Beliefs: When Do We Seek and Listen to Medical Advice?
Doctor­–Patient Interactions: Why Can’t We Talk to Our Doctors?
Behavioral and Psychological Correlates of Illness: The Effects of Thoughts and Actions on Health
Smoking: Risky for you and Everyone around You
Psychology Lends a Hand: What Are the Risks of Long-Term Cell Phone Use: Can You Hear Me Now
Diet and Nutrition: What You Eat May Save Your Life
Alcohol Consumption: Here’s to your Health?
AIDS: A Major Assault on Public Health
Emotions and Health
Promoting Wellness: Developing a Healthier Lifestyle
Primary Prevention: Decreasing the Risks of Illness
Secondary Prevention: The Role of Early Detection in Disease and Illness
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
ELEVEN MENTAL DISORDERS: WHEN BEHAVIOR GOES “OVER THE EDGE”
Assessment and Diagnosis: The DSM-IV-TR and Other Tools
Psychological Assessment: Other Techniques for Measuring Mental Disorders
Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
Disruptive Behavior and Attention Deficit Disorders
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Feeding and Eating Disorders
Autism: A Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Mood Disorders: The Downs and Ups of Life
Depressive Disorders: Probing the Depths of Despair
Bipolar Disorders: Riding the Emotional Roller-Coaster
The Causes of Depression: Its Biological and Psychological Roots
Psychology Lends a Hand: Stop Running—and Feel Better
Anxiety Disorders: When Dread Debilitates
Phobias: Excessive Fear of Specific Objects or Situations
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Behaviors and Thoughts Outside One’s Control
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform Disorders: Physical Symptoms without Physical Causes
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
Sexual Dysfunctions: Disturbances In Desire and Arousal
Paraphillas: Disturbances in Sexual Object or Behavior
Gender Identity Disorders
Psychology Goes to Work: Abusive Supervisors and How to Deal with
Personality Disorders: Traits That Harm
Schizophrenia: Losing Touch with Reality
The Nature of Schizophrenia
The Onset and Course of Schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia
Substance-Related Disorders
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
TWELVE Psychological Treatments: Reducing the Pain and Distress of Mental Disorders
Psychotherapies: The Therapeutic Alliance as the Foundation for Psychological Treatments
Psychodynamic Therapies: From Repression to Insight
Phenomenological/Experiential Therapies: Emphasizing the Positive
Behavior Therapies: Mental Disorders and Faulty Learning
Cognitive Therapies: Changing Disordered Thought
Computer and Internet-Based Therapies
Psychological Treatments and Diversity: A Multicultural Approach to Combating Mental Disorders
Alternatives to Individual Psychotherapy: Group Therapies
Marital Therapy: When Spouses Are Seen as the Enemy
Family Therapy: Changing Patterns That Harm
Psychology Goes to Work: Employee Assistance Programs—A Helping Hand from Your Company
Biological Therapies
Drug Therapy: The Pharmacological Revolution
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Psychosurgery: From Lobotomies to Brain Implants
Psychological Treatments: Are They Effective?
Are Some Forms of Psychological Treatment More Successful Than Others?
Why Are Different Types of Therapy Effective?
Psychology Lends a Hand: Choosing a Therapist—Some “Do’s” and “Don’ts”
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
THIRTEEN SOCIAL THOUGHT AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Social Thought: Thinking About Other People
Nonverbal Communication: Unspoken Clues to Others’ Moods and Reactions
Psychology Lends a Hand: How to Tell When Another Person is Lying
Attribution: Understanding the Causes of Others’ Behavior
Social Cognition: How We Process Social Information
Attitudes: Evaluating the Social World
Social Behavior: Interacting with Others
Prejudice: Distorted Views of the Social World…and Their Effects
Psychology Goes To Work: Prejudice in Work Settings: The Forms It Takes and What Companies are Doing to Combat It
Social Influence: Changing Others’ Behavior
Attraction…And Love
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
FOURTEEN INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR AT
Selection: Hiring the Best Person for the Job
Job Analysis: Assessing the Requirements for the Job
Developing Selection Techniques: Validity, Utility, and Fairness
Assessing Job Applicants: Interviews, Tests, and More
Training: Helping Employees Acquire Relevant Skills
Needs Analysis: Assessing What Skills Need to Be Trained
Program Development: Designing a Training Method
Evaluating Training Effectiveness: More Than Just Learning
Performance Appraisal: Identifying Employee Strengths and Weaknesses
Why Performance Appraisal is Unpopular, Yet Essential
Supervisors are Human, Too: Errors, Biases and Memory Lapses
Psychology Lends a Hand : How to Give Feedback to Coworkers
Work Motivation: Encouraging Employees to Do Their Best
Job Satisfaction: Are Happy Workers Productive Workers?
Organizational Citizenship & Retaliation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Creating a Satisfying Work Environment: The Essential Role of Fairness
Leadership: From Supervisors to CEOs
Leader Characteristics: How Effective Leaders Are Different From Others
Leadership in Context: How the Work Setting Influences Leaders
Transformational Leadership: Encouraging and Inspiring Others
Psychology Lends a Hand : How to Become a More Transformational Leader
Teamwork: The Challenges of Collaborative Work
Team Composition: Deciding Who Should Work with Whom
Managing Conflict: The Benefits of Some Forms of Disagreement
Encouraging Cooperation over Competition
Summary and Review of Key Questions
Key Terms
Psychology: Understanding Its Findings
Making Psychology Part of Your Life
MyPsychLab
Study Guide
Glossary
References
Answer Key
Name Index
Subject Index
Credits


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