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Test Bank for Psychology: Core Concepts (6th Edition) by Philip G. Zimbardo

By: Zimbardo
ISBN-10: 205547885
/ ISBN-13: 9780205547883

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Zimbardo
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Table of contents:

Brief Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science
Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature
Chapter 3: Learning and Human Nurture
Chapter 4: Memory
Chapter 5: Thinking and Intelligence
Chapter 6: Development Over the Lifespan
Chapter 7: Sensation and Perception
Chapter 8: States of Consciousness
Chapter 9: Emotion and Motivation
Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person
Chapter 11: Social Psychology
Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders
Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders
Chapter 14: Stress, Health, and Well-Being
Detailed Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science
1.1 What Is Psychology — and What Is It Not?
Psychology: It’s More than You Think
Psychology is Not Psychiatry
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Thinking Critically about Psychology and Pseudopsychology
1.2 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge?
The Five Steps of the Scientific Method
Five Types of Psychological Research
Controlling Biases in Psychological Research
Ethical Issues in Psychological Research
Questions Science Cannot Answer
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
1.3 What Are Psychology’s Main Perspectives?
Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological Perspective
The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern Cognitive Perspective
The Behavioral Perspective: Rejection of Introspection and a Focus on Observable Behavior
Whole-Person Perspective: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Trait & Temperament
The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture
The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context
The Changing Face of Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Facilitated Communication
Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature
2.1 How are Genes and Behavior Linked?
Evolution and Natural Selection
Genetics and Inheritance
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes
2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally?
The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System
The Nervous System
The Endocrine System
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System
2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes?
Windows on the Brain
Three Layers of the Brain
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
The Cooperative Brain
Cerebral Dominance
The Split Brain: “I’ve Half a Mind to…”
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Left Brain vs. Right Brain
Chapter 3: Learning and Human Nurture
3.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?
The Essentials of Classical Conditioning
Applications of Classical Conditioning
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy
3.2 How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?
Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism
The Power of Reinforcement
The Problem of Punishment
Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared
A Checklist for Modifying Operant Behavior
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
3.3 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning?
Insight Learning: Kohler in the Canaries with the Chimps
Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds out What’s on a Rat’s Mind
Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism
Rethinking Behavioral Learning in Cognitive Terms
Brain Mechanisms and Learning
“Higher” Cognitive Learning
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do Different People Have Different “Learning Styles”?
Chapter 4: Memory
4.1 What is Memory?
Metaphors for Memory
Memory’s Three Basic Tasks
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?
4.2 How Do We Form Memories?
The First Stage: Sensory Memory
The Second Stage: Working Memory
The Third Stage: Long-Term Memory
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When…?
4.3 How Do We Retrieve Memories?
Implicit and Explicit Memory
Retrieval Cues
Other Factors Affecting Retrieval
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On the Tip of Your Tongue
4.4 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?
Transience: Fading Memories Cause Forgetting
Absent-Mindedness: Lapses of Attention Cause Forgetting
Blocking: Access Problems
Misattribution: Memories in the Wrong Context
Suggestibility: External Cues Distort or Create Memories
Bias: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories
Persistence: When We Can’t Forget
The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory
Improving Your Memory with Mnemonics
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
USING PSYCHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY: How to Avoid Memory Failure on Exams
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Recovered Memory Controversy
Chapter 5: Thinking and Intelligence
5.1 What are the Components of Thought?
Concepts
Imagery and Cognitive Maps
Thought and the Brain
Intuition
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Schemas and Scripts Help You Know What to Expect
5.2 What Abilities Do Good Thinkers Possess?
Problem Solving
Judging and Making Decisions
On Becoming a Creative Genius
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
5.3 How is Intelligence Measured?
Binet and Simon Invent a School Abilities Test
American Psychologists Borrow Binet and Simon’s Idea
Problems with the IQ Formula
Calculating IQs “on the Curve”
IQ Testing Today
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Can You Do for an Exceptional Child?
5.4 Is Intelligence One or Many Abilities?
Psychometric Theories of Intelligence
Cognitive Theories of Intelligence
Cultural Definitions of Intelligence
Animals Can Be Intelligent–But Do They Think?
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Test Scores and the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
5.5 How Do Psychologists Explain IQ Differences Among Groups?
Intelligence and the Politics of Immigration
What Evidence Shows That Intelligence Is Influenced by Heredity?
What Evidence Shows That Intelligence is Influenced by Environment?
Heritability (Not Heredity) and Group Differences
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Stereotype Threat
USING PSCYHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY: Developing Expertise in Psychology — or Any Other Subject
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Question of Gender Differences
Chapter 6: Development Over the Lifespan
6.1 What Innate Abilities Does the Infant Possess?
Prenatal Development
The Neonatal Period: Abilities of the Newborn Child
Infancy: Building on the Neonatal Blueprint
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychological Traits in Your Genes
6.2 What are the Developmental Tasks of Childhood?
How Children Acquire Language
Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory
Social and Emotional Development
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Puzzle of ADHD
6.3 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence?
Adolescence and Culture
Physical Maturation in Adolescence
Sexual Issues in Adolescence
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Social and Emotional Issues in Adolescence
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
6.4 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face?
Early Adulthood: Explorations, Autonomy, and Intimacy
The Challenges of Midlife: Complexity and Generativity
Late Adulthood: The Age of Integrity
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Look Back at the Twin Studies
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Mozart Effect
Chapter 7: Sensation and Perception
7.1 How Does Stimulation Become Sensation?
Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation
Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation
Signal Detection Theory
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sensory Adaptation
7.2 How Are the Senses Alike? And How Are They Different?
Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light
Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…
How the Other Senses are Like Vision and Hearing
Synesthesia: Sensations Across the Senses
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Experience of Pain
7.3 What is the Relationship Between Sensation and Perception?
Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation
Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion
Theoretical Explanations for Perception
Seeing and Believing
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Thinking Critically about Subliminal Persuasion
Chapter 8: States of Consciousness
8.1 How is Consciousness Related to Other Mental Processes?
Tools for Studying Consciousness
Models of the Conscious and Nonconscious Minds
What Does Consciousness Do for Us?
Levels of Consciousness
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
8.2 What Cycles Occur in Everyday Consciousness?
Daydreaming
Sleep: The Mysterious Third of Our Lives
Dreaming: The Pageants of the Night
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sleep Disorders
8.3 What Other Forms Can Consciousness Take?
Hypnosis
Meditation
Psychoactive Drug States
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Dependence and Addiction
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Unconscious–Reconsidered
Chapter 9: Emotion and Motivation
9.1 What Do Our Emotions Do For Us?
The Evolution of Emotions
Counting the Emotions
Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Emotional Differences Between Men and Women Depend on Both Biology and Culture
9.2 Where Do Our Emotions Come From?
The Neuroscience of Emotion
Psychological Theories of Emotion: Resolving Some Persistent Issues
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U
9.3 How Much Control Do We Have Over Our Emotions?
Developing Emotional Intelligence
Detecting Deception
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Controlling Anger
9.4 Motivation: What Makes Us Act As We Do?
How Psychologists Use the Concept of Motivation
Types of Motivation
Theories of Motivation
The Unexpected Effects of Rewards on Motivation
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
9.5 How Are Achievement, Hunger, and Sex Alike? Different?
Achievement Motivation
Hunger Motivation
Sexual Motivation
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: A Question of Will Power, Laughter, and Chocolate Cakes
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Do “Lie Detectors” Really Detect Lies?
Chapter 10: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person
10.1 What Forces Shape Our Personalities?
Biology and Human Nature
The Effects of Nurture: Personality and the Environment
Inside the Person: Dispositions and Mental Processes
Social and Cultural Contributions to Personality
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Explaining Unusual People and Unusual Behavior
10.2 What Persistent Patterns, or Dispositions, Make Up Our Personalities?
Personality and Temperament
Personality as a Composite of Traits
Personality Disorders
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Finding Your Type
10.3 What Mental Processes Are at Work Within Our Possibilities?
Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Motivation and Mental Disorder
Humanistic Theories: Emphasis on Human Potential and Mental Health
Social-Cognitive Theories: Emphasis on Social Learning
Current Trends: The Person in a Social System
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
10.4 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Themselves and Others?
Implicit Personality Theories
Self Narratives: The Stories of Our Lives
The Effects of Culture on Our Views of Personality
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Developing Your Own Theory of Personality
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: The Person-Situation Controversy
Chapter 11: Social Psychology
11.1 How Does the Social Situation Affect Our Behavior?
Social Standards of Behavior
Conformity
Conformity and Independence Light Up the Brain Differently
Obedience to Authority
Cross-Cultural Tests of Milgram’s Research
Some Real World Extensions of the Milgram Obedience to Authority Paradigm
The Bystander Problem: The Evil of Inaction
Need Help? Ask for It!
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: On Being “Shoe” at Yale U.
11.2 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others?
Interpersonal Attraction
Making Cognitive Attributions
Loving Relationships
Cross-Cultural Research on the Need for Positive Self-Regard
Prejudice and Discrimination
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Sweet Smells of Attraction
11.3 How Do Systems Create Situations that Influence Behavior?
The Stanford Prison Experiment
Chains of System Command
Understanding The Abuses at Abu Ghraib Prison: Bad Apples or Bad Barrels?
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Terrorism “A Senseless Act of Violence, Perpetrated by Crazy Fanatics”?
Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders
12.1 What Is Psychological Disorder?
Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder
Indicators of Abnormality
A Caution to Readers
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Plea of Insanity
12.2 How Are Psychological Disorders Classified in the DSM-IV?
Overview of the DSM-IV Classification System
Mood Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Schizophrenia
Developmental Disorders
Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions
Gender Differences in Mental Disorders
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Shyness
12.3 What Are the Consequences of Labeling People?
Diagnostic Labels, Labeling, and Depersonalization
The Cultural Context of Psychological Disorder
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Insane Places Revisited–Another Look at the Rosenhan Study
Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders
13.1 What Is Therapy?
Entering Therapy
The Therapeutic Alliance and the Goals of Therapy
Therapy in Historical and Cultural Context
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Paraprofessionals Do Therapy, Too.
13.2 How Do Psychologists Treat Psychological Disorders?
Insight Therapies
Behavior Therapies
Cognitive—Behavioral Therapy: A Synthesis
Evaluating the Psychological Therapies
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Where Do Most People Get Help?
13.3 How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat Psychological Disorders?
Drug Therapy
Other Medical Therapies for Psychological Disorders
Hospitalization and the Alternatives
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: What Sort of Therapy Would You Recommend?
13.4 How Do The Psychological Therapies and Biomedical Therapies Compare?
Depression: Psychological vs Medical Treatment
Anxiety Disorders: Psychological vs Medical Treatment
“The Worried Well”: Not Everyone Needs Drugs
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Evidence-Based Practice
Chapter 14: Stress, Health, and Well-Being
14.1 What Causes Stress?
Traumatic Stressors
Chronic Stressors
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Student Stress
14.2 How Does Stress Affect Us Physically?
Physiological Responses to Stress
Stress and the Immune System
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Drugs for Stress Relief: A Costly Defense
14.3 Who Is Most Vulnerable to Stress?
Type A Personality and Hostility
Locus of Control
Hardiness
Optimism
Resilience
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology
14.4 How Can We Reduce the Impact of Stress on our Health?
Psychological Coping Strategies
Lifestyle Choices: A “Two-for-One” Benefit to Your Health
Putting It All Together: Developing Happiness and Subjective Well-Being
PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Is Change Really Hazardous to Your Health?


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