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Test Bank for Principles of Human Anatomy (14th Edition) by Gerard J. Tortora

By: Tortora Nielsen
ISBN-10: 1119444462
/ ISBN-13: 9781119444466

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Authors: Tortora Nielsen
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Table of contents:

1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY 1
1.1 Anatomy Defined 2
1.2 Levels of Body Organization and Body Systems 3
1.3 Life Processes 9
1.4 Basic Anatomical Terminology 9
Anatomical Position 9
Regional Names 9
Planes and Sections 10
1.5 Body Cavities 14
Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes 15
1.6 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants 18
1.7 The Human Body and Disease 19
1.8 Aging 20
1.9 Medical Imaging 20
1.10 Measuring the Human Body 23
Chapter Review and Resource Summary 23 / Critical Thinking Questions 25 / Answers to Figure Questions 25
2 CELLS 26
2.1 A Generalized Cell 27
2.2 The Plasma Membrane 28
Structure of the Membrane 28
Functions of Membrane Proteins 29
Membrane Permeability 29
Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 29
Kinetic Energy Transport 30 / Transport by Transporter Proteins 30 / Transport in Vesicles 30
2.3 Cytoplasm 33
Cytosol 33
Organelles 34
Centrosome 35 / Cilia and Flagella 35 / Ribosomes 35 / Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 37 / Golgi Complex 37 / Lysosomes 39 / Peroxisomes 40 / Proteasomes 40 / Mitochondria 40
2.4 Nucleus 42
2.5 Cell Division 43
Somatic Cell Division 45
Interphase 45
Mitotic Phase 45
Control of Cell Destiny 47
Reproductive Cell Division 48
Meiosis 48
2.6 Cellular Diversity 51
2.7 Aging and Cells 52
Key Medical Terms Associated with Cells 54 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 54 / Critical Thinking Questions 56 / Answers to Figure Questions 57
3 TISSUES 58
3.1 Types of Tissues 59
3.2 Cell Junctions 60
Tight Junctions 61
Adherens Junctions 61
Desmosomes 61
Hemidesmosomes 61
Gap Junctions 61
3.3 Comparison Between Epithelial and Connective Tissues 61
3.4 Epithelial Tissue 62
Classification of Surface Epithelium 63
Surface Epithelium 64
Glandular Epithelium 71
Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands 72 / Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands 72
3.5 Connective Tissue 73
General Features of Connective Tissue 73
Connective Tissue Cells 73
Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix 75
Ground Substance 75 / Fibers 75
Classification of Connective Tissue 76
Embryonic Connective Tissue 76
Mature Connective Tissue 77
Connective Tissue Proper 77
Supporting Connective Tissue 81
Liquid Connective Tissue 84
3.6 Membranes 85
Epithelial Membranes 85
Mucous Membranes 85 / Serous Membranes 85 / Cutaneous Membrane 87
Synovial Membranes 87
3.7 Muscular Tissue 87
3.8 Nervous Tissue 89
3.9 Aging and Tissues 89
Key Medical Terms Associated with Tissues 90 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 90 / Critical Thinking Questions 92 / Answers to Figure Questions 93
4 DEVELOPMENT 94
4.1 Principles of Development 95
4.2 Embryonic Period 96
First Week of Development 96
Fertilization 96 / Cleavage of the Zygote 97 / Blastocyst Formation 97 / Implantation 98
Second Week of Development 100
Development of the Trophoblast 100 / Development of the Bilaminar Embryonic Disc 100 / Development of the Amnion 100 / Development of the Yolk Sac 100
Development of Sinusoids 102 / Development of the Extraembryonic Coelom 102 / Development of the Chorion 102
Third Week of Development 102
Gastrulation 102 / Neurulation 104 / Development of Somites 106 / Development of the Intraembryonic Coelom 106 / Development of the Cardiovascular System 106 / Development of the Chorionic Villi and Placenta 106
Fourth Week of Development 108
Fifth Through Eighth Weeks of Development 110
4.3 Fetal Period 111
4.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 113
4.5 Labor 114
Key Medical Terms Associated with Development 115 /Chapter Review and Resource Summary 116 / CriticalThinkingQuestions 117 / Answers to Figure Questions 117
5 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 118
5.1 Structure of the Skin 119
Epidermis 119
Stratum Basale 120 / Stratum Spinosum 122 / Stratum Granulosum 122 / Stratum Lucidum 123 / Stratum Corneum 123 / Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis 123
Dermis 123
Blood Supply of the Integumentary System 125
The Structural Basis of Skin Color 125 / Tattooing and Body Piercing 126
Subcutaneous Layer or Hypodermis 126
5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 127
Hair 127
Anatomy of a Hair 128 / Hair Growth 129 / Types of Hairs 130 / Hair Color 130
Skin Glands 130
Sebaceous Glands 130 / Sudoriferous Glands 131 / Ceruminous Glands 132
Nails 132
5.3 Types of Skin 134
5.4 Functions of the Skin 135
5.5 Development of the Integumentary System 136
5.6 Aging and the Integumentary System 138
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Integumentary System 139 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 140 / Critical Thinking Questions 141 / Answers to Figure Questions 141
6 BONE TISSUE 142
6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 143
6.2 Types of Bones 143
6.3 Anatomy of a Bone 144
6.4 Bone Surface Markings 145
6.5 Histology of Bone Tissue 146
Compact Bone Tissue 148
Spongy Bone Tissue 149
6.6 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone 150
6.7 Bone Formation 151
Initial Bone Formation in an Embryo and Fetus 151
Intramembranous Ossification 151
Endochondral Ossification 153
Bone Growth During Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence 154
Growth in Length 154 / Growth in Thickness 155
Remodeling of Bone 155
6.8 Fractures 158
6.9 Exercise and Bone Tissue 161
6.10 Aging and Bone Tissue 161
6.11 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 161
Key Medical Terms Associated with Bone Tissue 163 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 163 / Critical Thinking Questions 165 / Answers to Figure Questions 165
7 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE AXIAL SKELETON 166
7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System 167
7.2 Skull 169
General Features and Functions 169
Nasal Septum 188
Orbits 188
Foramina 190
Unique Features of the Skull 190
Sutures 190 / Paranasal Sinuses 191 / Fontanels 191
Cranial Fossae 192
Age-related Changes in the Skull 194
Sexual Differences in the Skull 195
7.3 Hyoid Bone 196
7.4 Vertebral Column 197
Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column 197
Intervertebral Discs 197
Parts of a Typical Vertebra 199
Vertebral Body 199 / Vertebral Arch 199 / Processes 200
Regions of the Vertebral Column 201
Age-related Changes in the Vertebral Column 201
7.5 Thorax 210
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Axial Skeleton 214 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 214 / Critical Thinking Questions 215 / Answers to Figure Questions 215
8 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON 216
8.1 Skeleton of the Upper Limb 217
8.2 Skeleton of the Lower Limb 230
8.3 False and True Pelves 235
8.4 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves 236
8.5 Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles 236
8.6 Development of the Skeletal System 246
Key Medical Terms Associated with Appendicular Skeleton 248 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 248 / Critical Thinking Questions 249 / Answers to Figure Questions 249
9 JOINTS 250
9.1 Joint Classifications 251
Ligaments 251
9.2 Fibrous Joints 252
Sutures 252
Syndesmoses 253
Interosseous Membranes 253
9.3 Cartilaginous Joints 253
Synchondroses 253
Symphyses 253
Epiphyseal Cartilages 253
9.4 Synovial Joints 254
Structure of Synovial Joints 254
Articular Capsule 254 / Synovial Fluid 255 / Accessory Ligaments, Articular Discs, and Labra 255 / Nerve and Blood Supply 256
Bursae and Tendon Sheaths 256
9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 256
Gliding 256
Angular Movements 257
Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion, and Hyperextension 257 / Abduction, Adduction, and Circumduction 258
Rotation 258
Special Movements 259
9.6 Types of Synovial Joints 261
Plane Joints 261
Hinge Joints 261
Pivot Joints 261
Condyloid Joints 261
Saddle Joints 263
Ball-and-Socket Joints 263
9.7 Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints 264
9.8 Selected Joints of the Body 265
9.9 Aging and Joints 281
Key Medical Terms Associated with Joints 283 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 283 / Critical Thinking Questions 284 / Answers to Figure Questions 285
10 MUSCULAR TISSUE 286
10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 287
Types of Muscular Tissue 287
Functions of Muscular Tissue 287
Properties of Muscular Tissue 287
10.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Structure 288
Gross Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle 288
Connective Tissue Coverings 288
Nerve and Blood Supply 290
Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber (Cell) 290
Sarcolemma, T Tubules, and Sarcoplasm 290 / Myofibrils and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 291 / Filaments and the Sarcomere 292
Muscle Proteins 293
10.3 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Function 296
Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 296
Sliding Filament Mechanism 296 / The Neuromuscular Junction 296 / The Contraction Cycle 299 /
Excitation–Contraction Coupling 300
Muscle Tone 301
Isotonic and Isometric Contractions 302
10.4 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 303
Slow Oxidative Fibers 303
Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic Fibers 303
Fast Glycolytic Fibers 303
10.5 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 305
Effective Stretching 305
Strength Training 305
10.6 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 305
10.7 Smooth Muscle Tissue 307
10.8 Development of Muscles 309
10.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 310
Key Medical Terms Associated with Muscular Tissue 310 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 310 / Critical Thinking Questions 312 / Answers to Figure Questions 313
11 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 314
11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements 315
Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin and Insertion 315
Lever Systems 316
Effects of Fascicle Arrangement 318
Muscle Actions 319
Coordination Among Muscles 319
Structure and Function of Muscle Groups 319
11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named 320
11.3 Principal Skeletal Muscles 320
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Muscular System 415 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 416 / Critical Thinking Questions 417 / Answers to Figure Questions 417
12 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD 418
12.1 Functions of Blood 419
12.2 Physical Characteristics of Blood 419
12.3 Components of Blood 419
Blood Plasma 421
Formed Elements 421
12.4 Formation of Blood Cells 422
12.5 Red Blood Cells 425
RBC Anatomy 425
RBC Functions 425
RBC Life Cycle 426
Erythropoiesis: Production of RBCs 426
Blood Group Systems 427
12.6 White Blood Cells 428
WBC Anatomy and Types 428
Granular Leukocytes 428 / Agranular Leukocytes 428 / WBC Functions 428
12.7 Platelets 430
12.8 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord-Blood 431
Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood 432 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 433 / Critical Thinking Questions 434 / Answers to Figure Questions 434
13 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: THE HEART 435
13.1 Location and Surface Projection of the Heart 436
13.2 Structure and Function of the Heart 438
Pericardium 438
Layers of the Heart Wall 440
Chambers of the Heart 440
Right Atrium 442 / Right Ventricle 444 / Left Atrium 444 / Left Ventricle 444
Myocardial Thickness and Function 444
Fibrous Skeleton of the Heart 445
Heart Valves 445
Atrioventricular Valves 445 / Semilunar Valves 447
13.3 Circulation of Blood 447
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations 447
Coronary Circulation 448
Coronary Arteries 448 / Coronary Veins 450
13.4 Cardiac Conduction System and Innervation 451
Cardiac Conduction System 451
Cardiac Nerves 453
13.5 Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat) 453
13.6 Heart Sounds 453
13.7 Exercise and the Heart 454
13.8 Development of the Heart 458
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Heart 460
Chapter Review and Resource Summary 460
Critical Thinking Questions 462
Answers to Figure Questions 462
14 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS 463
14.1 Anatomy of Blood Vessels 464
Basic Structure of a Blood Vessel 464
Tunica Interna (Intima) 464 / Tunica Media 466 / Tunica Externa 466
Arteries 466
Elastic Arteries 466 / Muscular Arteries 466
Anastomoses 467
Arterioles 467
Capillaries 468
Venules 469
Veins 469
Blood Distribution 471
14.2 Circulatory Routes—Systemic Circulation 472
14.3 Circulatory Routes—Hepatic Portal Circulation 511
14.4 Circulatory Routes—Pulmonary Circulation 512
14.5 Circulatory Routes—Fetal Circulation 513
14.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood 515
14.7 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 516
Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood Vessels 517 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 518 / Critical Thinking Questions 519 / Answers to Figure Questions 519
15 THE LYMPHATIC (LYMPHOID) SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY 520
15.1 The Concept of Immunity 521
15.2 Lymphatic System Structure and Functions 521
Structure 521
Functions 521
15.3 Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation 523
Lymphatic Capillaries 523
Lymph Trunks and Ducts 524
Formation and Flow of Lymph 524
15.4 Lymphatic Organs and Tissues 526
Thymus 526
Lymph Nodes 527
Spleen 529
Lymphatic Nodules 531
15.5 Principal Groups of Lymph Nodes 531
15.6 Development of Lymphatic Tissues 542
15.7 Aging and the Lymphatic System 542
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Lymphatic System and Immunity 544 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 544 / Critical Thinking Questions 545 / Answers to Figure Questions 545
16 NERVOUS TISSUE 546
16.1 Overview of the Nervous System 547
Structures of the Nervous System 547
Organization of the Nervous System 547
Anatomical Organization 547 / Functional Organization 548
16.2 Histology and Functions of Neurons 548
Neurons 549
Parts of a Neuron 549 / Cell Body 549 / Nerve Fibers 550
Synapses 552
Neuromuscular Junction 552 / Synapses Between Neurons 552 / Neurotransmitters 553 / Structural Diversity in Neurons 553
16.3 Histology and Function of Neuroglia 555
Neuroglia of the CNS 555
Neuroglia of the PNS 556
Myelination 556
Gray and White Matter 558
16.4 Neural Circuits 558
16.5 Regeneration and Neurogenesis 560
Key Medical Terms Associated with Nervous Tissue 560 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 561 / Critical Thinking Questions 562 / Answers to Figure Questions 562
17 THE SPINAL CORD AND THE SPINAL NERVES 563
17.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy 564
Protective Structures 564
Vertebral Column 564 / Meninges 564
External Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 565
Internal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 568
17.2 Spinal Nerves 569
Structure of a Single Nerve 569
Organization of Spinal Nerves 571
Branches of Spinal Nerves 572
Intercostal Nerves 572 / Plexuses 572
Dermatomes Versus Cutaneous Fields 573
17.3 Spinal Cord Functions 584
Sensory and Motor Tracts 584
Reflexes and Reflex Arcs 585
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Spinal Cord and the Spinal Nerves 586 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 587 / Critical Thinking Questions 588 / Answers to Figure Questions 588
18 THE BRAIN AND THE CRANIAL NERVES 589
18.1 Development and General Structure of the Brain 590
Brain Development 590
Major Parts of the Brain 592
18.2 Protection and Blood Supply 593
Protective Coverings of the Brain 593
Cerebrospinal Fluid 594
Formation of CSF in the Ventricles 594 / Functions of CSF 595 / Circulation of CSF 595
Brain Blood Flow and the Blood–Brain Barrier 598
18.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation 599
Medulla Oblongata 599
Pons 601
Midbrain 601
Reticular Formation 603
18.4 The Cerebellum 604
18.5 The Diencephalon 604
Thalamus 606
Hypothalamus 607
Epithalamus 608
Circumventricular Organs 608
18.6 The Cerebrum 608
Structure of the Cerebrum 609
Cerebral White Matter 610
Basal Nuclei 611
The Limbic System 612
18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 614
Sensory Areas 614
Motor Areas 615
Association Areas 615
Hemispheric Lateralization 617
Memory 617
Brain Waves 617
18.8 Aging and the Nervous System 618
18.9 Cranial Nerves 618
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Brain and the Cranial Nerves 633 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 633 / Critical Thinking Questions 635 / Answers to Figure Questions 635
19 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM 636
19.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 637
Somatic Nervous System 637
Autonomic Nervous System 637
Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Motor Neurons 638
19.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways 639
Understanding Autonomic Motor Pathways 639
Migration of the Neural Crest Tissue 641
Shared Anatomical Components
of an Autonomic Motor Pathway 641
Motor Neurons and Autonomic Ganglia 641 / Autonomic Plexuses 641
19.3 Structure of the Sympathetic Division 643
Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons 643
Sympathetic Ganglia and Postganglionic Neurons 645
Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia 645 / Prevertebral Ganglia 646
19.4 Structure of the Parasympathetic Division 646
Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons 646
Parasympathetic Ganglia and Postganglionic Neurons 648
19.5 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors 650
Cholinergic Neurons and Receptors 650
Adrenergic Neurons and Receptors 651
19.6 Functions of the ANS 651
Sympathetic Responses 651
Parasympathetic Responses 652
19.7 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions 655
Autonomic Reflexes 655
Autonomic Control by Higher Centers 655
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Autonomic Nervous System 655 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 656 / Critical Thinking Questions 657 / Answers to Figure Questions 657
20 SOMATIC SENSES AND MOTOR CONTROL 658
20.1 Overview of Sensations 659
Definition of Sensations 659
Characteristics of Sensations 659
Classification of Sensations 659
Types of Sensory Receptors 659
20.2 Somatic Sensations 660
Tactile Sensations 661
Touch 661 / Pressure 661 /Vibration 662 / Itch and Tickle 662
Thermal Sensations 662
Pain Sensations 662
Types of Pain 662 / Localization of Pain 662
Proprioceptive Sensations 663
Muscle Spindles 663 / Tendon Organs 665 / Joint Kinesthetic Receptors 665
20.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways 666
Posterior Column–Medial Lemniscus Pathway to the Cerebral Cortex 666
Anterolateral (Spinothalamic) Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex 667
Mapping the Primary Somatosensory Area 667
Somatic Sensory Pathways to the Cerebellum 668
20.4 Somatic Motor Pathways 669
Origin of Motor Pathways 670
Direct Motor Pathways 670
Indirect Motor Pathways 673
Roles of the Basal Nuclei in Movement 673
Roles of the Cerebellum in Movement 673
Role of the Brainstem in Movement 673
Vestibular Nuclei in the Medulla and Pons 673 / Reticular Formation in the Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain 673 /
Superior Colliculus in the Midbrain 674
20.5 Integration of Sensory Input and Motor Output 675
Key Medical Terms Associated with Somatic Senses and Motor Control 675 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 675 / Critical Thinking Questions 677 / Answers to Figure Questions 677
21 SPECIAL SENSES 678
21.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 679
Anatomy of Olfactory Receptors 679
The Olfactory Pathway 681
21.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 681
Anatomy of Gustatory Receptors 681
The Gustatory Pathway 683
21.3 Vision 683
Accessory Structures of the Eye 683
Eyelids 683 / Eyelashes and Eyebrows 685 / The Lacrimal Apparatus 685 / Extrinsic Eye Muscles 685
Anatomy of the Eyeball 685
Fibrous Tunic 685 / Vascular Tunic 685 / Retina 687 / Lens 690 / Interior of the Eyeball 690
The Visual Pathway 691
Processing of Visual Input in the Retina 692 / Pathway in the Brain 692
21.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 693
Anatomy of the Ear 693
External (Outer) Ear 693 / Middle Ear 694 / Internal (Inner) Ear 695
Mechanism of Hearing 699
The Auditory Pathway 701
Mechanism of Equilibrium 702
Otolithic Organs: Saccule and Utricle and Static Equilibrium 702 / Semicircular Ducts and Dynamic
Equilibrium 702
Equilibrium Pathways 705
21.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 707
Development of the Eyes 707
Development of the Ears 708
21.6 Aging and the Special Senses 709
Key Medical Terms Associated with Special Senses 709 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 710 / Critical Thinking Questions 711 / Answers to Figure Questions 711
22 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 712
22.1 Endocrine Glands Defined 713
22.2 Hormones 713
22.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 715
Anterior Pituitary 716
Posterior Pituitary 718
22.4 Pineal Gland and Thymus 719
22.5 Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands 720
22.6 Adrenal Glands 723
Adrenal Cortex 723
Adrenal Medulla 725
22.7 Pancreas 726
22.8 Ovaries and Testes 728
22.9 Other Endocrine Tissues 729
22.10 Development of the Endocrine System 730
22.11 Aging and the Endocrine System 731
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Endocrine System 732 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 732 / Critical Thinking Questions 734 / Answers to Figure Questions 734
23 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 735
23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy 736
23.2 Upper Respiratory System Anatomy 736
Nose 736
Pharynx 740
23.3 Lower Respiratory System Anatomy 741
Larynx 741
The Structures of Voice Production 743
Trachea 744
Bronchi 745
Lungs 749
Lobes, Fissures, and Lobules 751 / Alveolar Sacs and Alveoli 753 / Blood Supply to the Lungs 755
Patency of the Respiratory System 755
23.4 Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) 757
Inhalation 757
Exhalation 757
23.5 Regulation of Breathing 758
Role of the Respiratory Center 758
Medullary Respiratory Center 759 / Pontine Respiratory Group 760
Regulation of the Respiratory Center 760
Cortical Influences on Breathing 760
Chemoreceptor Regulation of Breathing 761 / Role of Lung Inflation in Stimulation of Breathing 761
23.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System 761
23.7 Development of the Respiratory System 762
23.8 Aging and the Respiratory System 763
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Respiratory System 763 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 764 / Critical Thinking Questions 765 / Answers to Figure Questions 765
24 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 766
24.1 Overview of the Digestive System 767
24.2 Layers of the GI Tract 768
Mucosa 768
Submucosa 769
Muscularis 769
Serosa 770
24.3 Peritoneum 770
24.4 Mouth 772
Salivary Glands 773
Tongue 775
Teeth 775
24.5 Pharynx 779
24.6 Esophagus 779
Histology of the Esophagus 779
Functions of the Esophagus 780
24.7 Stomach 781
Anatomy of the Stomach 781
Histology of the Stomach 783
Functions of the Stomach 784
24.8 Pancreas 786
Anatomy of the Pancreas 786
Histology of the Pancreas 787
Functions of the Pancreas 787
24.9 Liver and Gallbladder 788
Anatomy of the Liver and Gallbladder 788
Histology of the Liver and Gallbladder 789
Blood and Nerve Supply of the Liver and Gallbladder 792
Functions of the Liver and Gallbladder 793
24.10 Small Intestine 793
Anatomy of the Small Intestine 793
Histology of the Small Intestine 794
Functions of the Small Intestine 797
24.11 Large Intestine 800
Anatomy of the Large Intestine 800
Histology of the Large Intestine 802
Functions of the Large Intestine 803
24.12 Development of the Digestive System 805
24.13 Aging and the Digestive System 806
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Digestive System 806 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 807 / Critical Thinking Questions 809 / Answers to Figure Questions 809
25 THE URINARY SYSTEM 810
25.1 Overview of the Urinary System 811
25.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys 813
External Anatomy of the Kidneys 813
Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys 813
Blood and Nerve Supply of the Kidneys 816
25.3 The Nephron 817
Parts of a Nephron 817
Histology of the Nephron and Collecting Duct 819
Glomerular Capsule 821 / Renal Tubule and Collecting Duct 821
25.4 Functions of Nephrons 822
Glomerular Filtration 823
Tubular Reabsorption 824
Tubular Secretion 824
25.5 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination 825
Ureters 825
Urinary Bladder 828
Urethra 829
25.6 Development of the Urinary System 831
25.7 Aging and the Urinary System 832
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Urinary System 832 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 833 / Critical Thinking Questions 834 / Answers to Figure Questions 834
26 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS 835
26.1 Male Reproductive System 836
Scrotum 836
Testes 838
Sperm 842
Reproductive System Ducts in Males 843
Ducts of the Testis 843 / Epididymis 843 / Ductus Deferens 844 / Ejaculatory Ducts 845 / Urethra 845
Spermatic Cord 845
Accessory Sex Glands in Males 845
Seminal Vesicles 845 / Prostate 845 / Bulbourethral Glands 845
Semen 847
Penis 847
26.2 Female Reproductive System 849
Ovaries 849
Histology of the Ovaries 851 / Oogenesis and Follicular Development 853
Uterine Tubes 856
Uterus 859
Vagina 861
Vulva 862
Perineum 863
Mammary Glands 866
26.3 Female Reproductive Cycle 866
Menstrual Phase 867
Events in the Ovaries 867 / Events in the Uterus 867
Preovulatory Phase 868
Events in the Ovaries 868 / Events in the Uterus 868
Ovulation 868
Postovulatory Phase 868
Events in the Ovaries 868 / Events in the Uterus 870
26.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 870
Birth Control Methods 870
Surgical Sterilization 870 / Non-incisional Sterilization 870 / Hormonal Methods 871 / Intrauterine Devices 871
/Spermicides 871 / Barrier Methods 871 / Periodic Abstinence 872
Abortion 872
26.5 Development of the Reproductive Systems 872
26.6 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 874
Key Medical Terms Associated with the Reproductive Systems 875 / Chapter Review and Resource Summary 876 / Critical Thinking Questions 878 / Answers to Figure Questions 878
27 SURFACE ANATOMY 880
27.1 Overview of Surface Anatomy 881
Chapter Review and Resource Summary 903 / Critical Thinking Questions 904 / Answers to Figure Questions 904
APPENDIX A Measurements A-1
APPENDIX B Answers A-2
Glossary G-1
Index I-1


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