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Test Bank for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology with Atlas of the Skeleton Set (14th Edition) by Gerard J. Tortora

By: Gerard J. Tortora
ISBN-10: 1118774566
/ ISBN-13: 9781118774564

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Gerard J. Tortora
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Table of contents:

1 An Introduction to the Human Body 1
1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined 2
1.2 Levels of Structural Organization and Body Systems 2
1.3 Characteristics of the Living Human Organism 5
1.4 Homeostasis 8
1.5 Basic Anatomical Terminology 12
1.6 Medical Imaging 20
2 The Chemical Level of Organization 27
2.1 How Matter is Organized 28
2.2 Chemical Bonds 31
2.3 Chemical Reactions 35
2.4 Inorganic Compounds and Solutions 38
2.5 Organic Compounds 42
3 The Cellular Level of Organization 59
3.1 Parts of a Cell 60
3.2 The Plasma Membrane 61
3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 64
3.4 Cytoplasm 73
3.5 Nucleus 84
3.6 Protein Synthesis 87
3.7 Cell Division 91
3.8 Cellular Diversity 98
3.9 Aging and Cells 98
4 The Tissue Level of Organization 106
4.1 Types of Tissues 107
4.2 Cell Junctions 107
4.3 Comparison between Epithelial and Connective Tissues 109
4.4 Epithelial Tissue 110
4.5 Connective Tissue 121
4.6 Membranes 131
4.7 Muscular Tissue 134
4.8 Nervous Tissue 136
4.9 Excitable Cells 136
4.10 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 136
4.11 Aging and Tissues 138
5 The Integumentary System 142
5.1 Structure of the Skin 143
5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 150
5.3 Types of Skin 156
5.4 Functions of the Skin 156
5.5 Maintaining Homeostasis: Skin Wound Healing 158
5.6 Development of the Integumentary System 159
5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System 161
6 The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue 169
6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 170
6.2 Structure of Bone 170
6.3 Histology of Bone Tissue 171
6.4 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone 175
6.5 Bone Formation 176
6.6 Fracture and Repair of Bone 182
6.7 Bone’s Role in Calcium Homeostasis 184
6.8 Exercise and Bone Tissue 186
6.9 Aging and Bone Tissue 186
7 The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton 192
7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System 193
7.2 Types of Bones 193
7.3 Bone Surface Markings 195
7.4 Skull 196
7.5 Hyoid Bone 213
7.6 Vertebral Column 213
7.7 Thorax 216
8 The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton 231
8.1 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 232
8.2 Upper Limb (Extremity) 235
8.3 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 240
8.4 False and True Pelves 242
8.5 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves 245
8.6 Lower Limb (Extremity) 246
8.7 Development of the Skeletal System 253
9 Joints 258
9.1 Joint Classifications 259
9.2 Fibrous Joints 259
9.3 Cartilaginous Joints 261
9.4 Synovial Joints 261
9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 264
9.6 Types of Synovial Joints 269
9.7 Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints 272
9.8 Selected Joints of the Body 272
9.9 Aging and Joints 285
9.10 Arthroplasty 285
10 Muscular Tissue 291
10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 292
10.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 293
10.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 302
10.4 Muscle Metabolism 309
10.5 Control of Muscle Tension 311
10.6 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 315
10.7 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 317
10.8 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 317
10.9 Smooth Muscle Tissue 318
10.10 Regeneration of Muscular Tissue 320
10.11 Development of Muscle 322
10.12 Aging and Muscular Tissue 322
11 The Muscular System 328
11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements 329
11.2 How Skeletal Muscles are Named 333
11.3 Principal Skeletal Muscles 333
12 Nervous Tissue 399
12.1 Overview of the Nervous System 400
12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 402
12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons 410
12.4 Signal Transmission at Synapses 424
12.5 Neurotransmitters 432
12.6 Neural Circuits 435
12.7 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue 436
13 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 442
13.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy 443
13.2 Spinal Nerves 449
13.3 Spinal Cord Physiology 460
14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 473
14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply 474
14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid 477
14.3 The Brain Stem and Reticular Formation 482
14.4 The Cerebellum 487
14.5 The Diencephalon 489
14.6 The Cerebrum 492
14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 497
14.8 Cranial Nerves 502
14.9 Development of the Nervous System 515
14.10 Aging and the Nervous System 517
15 The Autonomic Nervous System 523
15.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 524
15.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways 526
15.3 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors 535
15.4 Physiology of the ANS 536
15.5 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions 540
16 Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems 546
16.1 Sensation 547
16.2 Somatic Sensations 550
16.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways 555
16.4 Somatic Motor Pathways 560
16.5 Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum 566
17 The Special Senses 572
17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 573
17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 576
17.3 Vision 579
17.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 595
17.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 608
17.6 Aging and the Special Senses 610
18 The Endocrine System 615
18.1 Comparison of Control by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 616
18.2 Endocrine Glands 616
18.3 Hormone Activity 617
18.4 Mechanisms of Hormone Action 619
18.5 Control of Hormone Secretion 622
18.6 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 623
18.7 Thyroid Gland 631
18.8 Parathyroid Glands 635
18.9 Adrenal Glands 638
18.10 Pancreatic Islets 642
18.11 Ovaries and Testes 646
18.12 Pineal Gland and Thymus 646
18.13 Other Endocrine Tissues and Organs, Eicosanoids, and Growth Factors 647
18.14 The Stress Response 648
18.15 Development of the Endocrine System 650
18.16 Aging and the Endocrine System 652
19 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 661
19.1 Functions and Properties of Blood 662
19.2 Formation of Blood Cells 665
19.3 Red Blood Cells 668
19.4 White Blood Cells 671
19.5 Platelets 674
19.6 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord Blood 675
19.7 Hemostasis 676
19.8 Blood Groups and Blood Types 680
20 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart 688
20.1 Anatomy of the Heart 689
20.2 Heart Valves and Circulation of Blood 696
20.3 Cardiac Muscle Tissue and the Cardiac Conduction System 702
20.4 The Cardiac Cycle 710
20.5 Cardiac Output 712
20.6 Exercise and the Heart 716
20.7 Help for Failing Hearts 717
20.8 Development of the Heart 719
21 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics 729
21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels 730
21.2 Capillary Exchange 738
21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Affecting Blood Flow 741
21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow 744
21.5 Checking Circulation 748
21.6 Shock and Homeostasis 750
21.7 Circulatory Routes 752
21.8 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood 791
21.9 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 792
22 The Lymphatic System and Immunity 799
22.1 Lymphatic System Structure and Function 800
22.2 Development of Lymphatic Tissues 809
22.3 Innate Immunity 810
22.4 Adaptive Immunity 815
22.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity 820
22.6 Antibody-Mediated Immunity 824
22.7 Self-Recognition and Self-Tolerance 829
22.8 Stress and Immunity 831
22.9 Aging and the Immune System 831
23 The Respiratory System 840
23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy 841
23.2 Pulmonary Ventilation 856
23.3 Lung Volumes and Capacities 862
23.4 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 863
23.5 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 866
23.6 Control of Breathing 872
23.7 Exercise and the Respiratory System 876
23.8 Development of the Respiratory System 877
23.9 Aging and the Respiratory System 878
24 The Digestive System 886
24.1 Overview of the Digestive System 887
24.2 Layers of the GI Tract 888
24.3 Neural Innervation of the GI Tract 889
24.4 Peritoneum 890
24.5 Mouth 893
24.6 Pharynx 898
24.7 Esophagus 899
24.8 Deglutition 899
24.9 Stomach 901
24.10 Pancreas 906
24.11 Liver and Gallbladder 909
24.12 Small Intestine 913
24.13 Large Intestine 924
24.14 Phases of Digestion 930
24.15 Development of the Digestive System 932
24.16 Aging and the Digestive System 932
25 Metabolism and Nutrition 940
25.1 Metabolic Reactions 941
25.2 Energy Transfer 942
25.3 Carbohydrate Metabolism 943
25.4 Lipid Metabolism 953
25.5 Protein Metabolism 956
25.6 Key Molecules at Metabolic Crossroads 958
25.7 Metabolic Adaptations 959
25.8 Heat and Energy Balance 964
25.9 Nutrition 968
26 The Urinary System 979
26.1 Overview of Kidney Functions 981
26.2 Anatomy and Histology of the Kidneys 981
26.3 Overview of Renal Physiology 991
26.4 Glomerular Filtration 992
26.5 Tubular Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion 995
26.6 Production of Dilute and Concentrated Urine 1003
26.7 Evaluation of Kidney Function 1008
26.8 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination 1010
26.9 Waste Management in Other Body Systems 1014
26.10 Development of the Urinary System 1015
26.11 Aging and the Urinary System 1016
27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 1023
27.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis 1024
27.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 1028
27.3 Acid–Base Balance 1031
27.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 1037
28 The Reproductive Systems 1041
28.1 Male Reproductive System 1042
28.2 Female Reproductive System 1054
28.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 1069
28.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 1074
28.5 Development of the Reproductive Systems 1077
28.6 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 1079
29 Development and Inheritance 1089
29.1 Embryonic Period 1090
29.2 Fetal Period 1105
29.3 Teratogens 1107
29.4 Prenatal Diagnostic Tests 1108
29.5 Maternal Changes during Pregnancy 1110
29.6 Exercise and Pregnancy 1113
29.7 Labor 1113
29.8 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth 1115
29.9 The Physiology of Lactation 1116
29.10 Inheritance 1117
Appendix A: Measurements A-1
Appendix B: Periodic Table B-3
Appendix C: Normal Values for Selected Blood Tests C-4
Appendix D: Normal Values for Selected Urine Tests D-6
Appendix E: Answers E-8
Glossary G-1
Credits C-1
Index I-1


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