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Test Bank for Physics (6th Edition) by John D. Cutnell

By: John D. Cutnell, Kenneth W. Johnson
ISBN-10: 471151831
/ ISBN-13: 9780471151838

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: John D. Cutnell, Kenneth W. Johnson
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Table of contents:

1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts 1
1.1 The Nature of Physics 1
1.2 Units 1
1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving 3
1.4 Trigonometry 6
1.5 Scalars and Vectors 8
1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction 10
1.7 The Components of a Vector 12
1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components 15
CONCEPT SUMMARY 18
2 Kinematics in One Dimension 26
2.1 Displacement 26
2.2 Speed and Velocity 27
2.3 Acceleration 29
2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration 33
2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics 36
2.6 Freely Falling Bodies 40
2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration 44
CONCEPT SUMMARY 46
3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 54
3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration 54
3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 55
3.3 Projectile Motion 59
3.4 Relative Velocity 67
CONCEPT SUMMARY 71
4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion 79
4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass 79
4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 79
4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 81
4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton’s Second Law of Motion 84
4.5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 85
4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview 86
4.7 The Gravitational Force 87
4.8 The Normal Force 91
4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces 94
4.10 The Tension Force 100
4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 101
4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 105
CONCEPT SUMMARY 110
5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 121
5.1 Uniform Circular Motion 121
5.2 Centripetal Acceleration 122
5.3 Centripetal Force 125
5.4 Banked Curves 128
5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits 129
5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artifi cial Gravity 133
5.7 Vertical Circular Motion 135
CONCEPT SUMMARY 136
6 Work and Energy 142
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 142
6.2 The Work–Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy 145
6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 152
6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces 154
6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy 156
6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work–Energy Theorem 159
6.7 Power 160
6.8 Other Forms of Energy and the Conservation of Energy 162
6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force 162
CONCEPT SUMMARY 164
7 Impulse and Momentum 173
7.1 The Impulse–Momentum Theorem 173
7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum 177
7.3 Collisions in One Dimension 182
7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions 187
7.5 Center of Mass 187
CONCEPT SUMMARY 189
8 Rotational Kinematics 197
8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement 197
8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 200
8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics 202
8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables 204
8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration 206
8.6 Rolling Motion 209
8.7 The Vector Nature of Angular Variables 210
CONCEPT SUMMARY 210
9 Rotational Dynamics 218
9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects 218
9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium 220
9.3 Center of Gravity 225
9.4 Newton’s Second Law for Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis 230
9.5 Rotational Work and Energy 236
9.6 Angular Momentum 239
CONCEPT SUMMARY 241
10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity 251
10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion 251
10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and the Reference Circle 255
10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion 260
10.4 The Pendulum 263
10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion 266
10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance 267
10.7 Elastic Deformation 268
10.8 Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law 271
CONCEPT SUMMARY 272
11 Fluids 281
11.1 Mass Density 281
11.2 Pressure 282
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid 284
11.4 Pressure Gauges 287
11.5 Pascal’s Principle 288
11.6 Archimedes’ Principle 291
11.7 Fluids in Motion 295
11.8 The Equation of Continuity 297
11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation 299
11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation 301
11.11 Viscous Flow 304
CONCEPT SUMMARY 306
12 Temperature and Heat 316
12.1 Common Temperature Scales 316
12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale 317
12.3 Thermometers 318
12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion 320
12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion 326
12.6 Heat and Internal Energy 328
12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity 328
12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat 331
12.9 Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter 336
12.10 Humidity 339
CONCEPT SUMMARY 340
13 The Transfer of Heat 348
13.1 Convection 348
13.2 Conduction 351
13.3 Radiation 357
13.4 Applications 361
CONCEPT SUMMARY 362
14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 367
14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number 367
14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 370
14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases 375
14.4 Diffusion 379
CONCEPT SUMMARY 382
15 Thermodynamics 388
15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings 388
15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 388
15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 389
15.4 Thermal Processes 391
15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas 395
15.6 Specifi c Heat Capacities 398
15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 399
15.8 Heat Engines 400
15.9 Carnot’s Principle and the Carnot Engine 401
15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 404
15.11 Entropy 408
15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 412
CONCEPT SUMMARY 412
16 Waves and Sound 422
16.1 The Nature of Waves 422
16.2 Periodic Waves 424
16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String 425
16.4 The Mathematical Description of a Wave 428
16.5 The Nature of Sound 428
16.6 The Speed of Sound 431
16.7 Sound Intensity 435
16.8 Decibels 437
16.9 The Doppler Effect 439
16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine 444
16.11 The Sensitivity of the Human Ear 446
CONCEPT SUMMARY 446
17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena 456
17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 456
17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves 457
17.3 Diffraction 461
17.4 Beats 463
17.5 Transverse Standing Waves 465
17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves 469
17.7 Complex Sound Waves 472
CONCEPT SUMMARY 473
18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields 481
18.1 The Origin of Electricity 481
18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force 482
18.3 Conductors and Insulators 484
18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction 485
18.5 Coulomb’s Law 486
18.6 The Electric Field 491
18.7 Electric Field Lines 496
18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding 499
18.9 Gauss’ Law 501
18.10 Copiers and Computer Printers 505
CONCEPT SUMMARY 506
19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential 514
19.1 Potential Energy 514
19.2 The Electric Potential Difference 515
19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges 521
19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field 525
19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 528
19.6 Biomedical Applications of Electric Potential Differences 532
CONCEPT SUMMARY 534
20 Electric Circuits 541
20.1 Electromotive Force and Current 541
20.2 Ohm’s Law 543
20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 544
20.4 Electric Power 547
20.5 Alternating Current 549
20.6 Series Wiring 552
20.7 Parallel Wiring 555
20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel 559
20.9 Internal Resistance 560
20.10 Kirchhoff’s Rules 561
20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage 564
20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 566
20.13 RC Circuits 568
20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current 569
CONCEPT SUMMARY 570
21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields 580
21.1 Magnetic Fields 580
21.2 The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a Moving Charge 582
21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field 585
21.4 The Mass Spectrometer 589
21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 590
21.6 The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil 592
21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents 594
21.8 Ampère’s Law 601
21.9 Magnetic Materials 602
CONCEPT SUMMARY 605
22 Electromagnetic Induction 615
22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current 615
22.2 Motional Emf 616
22.3 Magnetic Flux 622
22.4 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction 624
22.5 Lenz’s Law 627
22.6 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound 630
22.7 The Electric Generator 631
22.8 Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance 636
22.9 Transformers 639
CONCEPT SUMMARY 642
23 Alternating Current Circuits 651
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance 651
23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance 653
23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance 655
23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits 660
23.5 Semiconductor Devices 662
CONCEPT SUMMARY 667
24 Electromagnetic Waves 673
24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 673
24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 677
24.3 The Speed of Light 679
24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves 681
24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves 685
24.6 Polarization 686
CONCEPT SUMMARY 692
25 The Refl ection of Light: Mirrors 699
25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 699
25.2 The Refl ection of Light 700
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror 701
25.4 Spherical Mirrors 703
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 706
25.6 The Mirror Equation and the Magnification Equation 710
CONCEPT SUMMARY 715
26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments 721
26.1 The Index of Refraction 721
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light 722
26.3 Total Internal Refl ection 727
26.4 Polarization and the Refl ection and Refraction of Light 733
26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows 733
26.6 Lenses 735
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses 736
26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation 739
26.9 Lenses in Combination 742
26.10 The Human Eye 744
26.11 Angular Magnifi cation and the Magnifying Glass 748
26.12 The Compound Microscope 750
26.13 The Telescope 751
26.14 Lens Aberrations 753
CONCEPT SUMMARY 754
27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light 766
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 766
27.2 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 768
27.3 Thin-Film Interference 771
27.4 The Michelson Interferometer 775
27.5 Diffraction 776
27.6 Resolving Power 780
27.7 The Diffraction Grating 785
27.8 Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference 787
27.9 X-Ray Diffraction 789
CONCEPT SUMMARY 790
28 Special Relativity 798
28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames 798
28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity 799
28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation 801
28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction 805
28.5 Relativistic Momentum 807
28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy 809
28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities 814
CONCEPT SUMMARY 816
29 Particles and Waves 822
29.1 The Wave–Particle Duality 822
29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Constant 823
29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 824
29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect 830
29.5 The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter 833
29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 835
CONCEPT SUMMARY 839
30 The Nature of the Atom 844
30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom 844
30.2 Line Spectra 845
30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 847
30.4 De Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Assumption About Angular Momentum 852
30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom 852
30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements 856
30.7 X-Rays 859
30.8 The Laser 863
30.9 Medical Applications of the Laser 865
30.10 Holography 867
CONCEPT SUMMARY 869
31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 876
31.1 Nuclear Structure 876
31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus 878
31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 879
31.4 Radioactivity 882
31.5 The Neutrino 887
31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity 888
31.7 Radioactive Dating 891
31.8 Radioactive Decay Series 895
31.9 Radiation Detectors 895
CONCEPT SUMMARY 897
32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles 903
32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 903
32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions 907
32.3 Nuclear Fission 909
32.4 Nuclear Reactors 911
32.5 Nuclear Fusion 912
32.6 Elementary Particles 915
32.7 Cosmology 920
CONCEPT SUMMARY 923
Appendices A-1
Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientifi c Notation A-1
Appendix B Significant Figures A-1
Appendix C Algebra A-2
Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms A-3
Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry A-4
Appendix F Selected Isotopes A-5
Answers to Check Your Understanding A-9
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-16


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