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Test Bank for Introduction to Learning and Behavior (3rd Edition) by Russell A. Powell

By: Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, P. Lynne Honey, Suzanne E. Macdonald
ISBN-10: 495595284
/ ISBN-13: 9780495595281

Resource Type Information

Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, P. Lynne Honey, Suzanne E. Macdonald
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Table of content:

Preface xiii
About the Authors xxi
Introduction 1
And Furthermore: Notation for Conditioning Diagrams 4
Historical Background 6
Aristotle: Empiricism and the Laws of Association 6
Descartes: Mind-Body Dualism and the Reflex 8
The British Empiricists 8
Structuralism: The Experimental Study of Human Consciousness 9
Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mind 10
The Theory of Evolution: Humans as Animals 11
Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behavior 12
And Furthermore: John B. Watson: Behaviorism’s Controversial Founder 15
Five Schools of Behaviorism 16
Watson’s Methodological Behaviorism 16
Hull’s Neobehaviorism 19
And Furthermore: Deliberate Practice and Expert Performance 20
Tolman’s Cognitive Behaviorism 23
And Furthermore: How to Read Graphs 28
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory 28
Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism 30
Advice for the Lovelorn 38
And Furthermore: The Life of B. F. Skinner 39
Summary 42
Suggested Readings 43
Study Questions 43
Concept Review 44
Chapter Test 46
Answers to Chapter Test 49
Research Methods 50
Basic Terms and Definitions 51
Independent and Dependent Variables 51
Functional Relationships 52
Stimulus and Response 53
Overt and Covert Behavior 53
Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli 54
Establishing Operations: Deprivation and Satiation 55
Contiguity and Contingency 56
Measurement of Behavior 57
Behavioral Definitions 57
Recording Methods 58
Research Designs 64
Descriptive Research 64
Experimental Research 67
Advice for the Lovelorn 80
Use of Animals in Behavioral Research 81
And Furthermore: Cruel Starvation or a Healthy Diet: The Ethics of Food Restriction 83
Summary 84
Suggested Readings 85
Study Questions 85
Concept Review 86
Chapter Test 88
Answers to Chapter Test 90
Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioning 91
Elicited Behaviors 92
Reflexes 92
Fixed Action Patterns 94
Simple Mechanisms of Learning 96
Habituation and Sensitization 96
Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion 100
Advice for the Lovelorn 105
Classical Conditioning 105
Pavlov’s Discovery of Classical Conditioning 106
Basic Procedure and Definitions 107
Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning 112
And Furthermore: Classical Conditioning and Interpersonal Attraction 116
Excitatory and Inhibitory Conditioning 116
Temporal Arrangement of Stimuli 117
Summary 121
Suggested Readings 122
Study Questions 122
Concept Review 123
Chapter Test 124
Answers to Chapter Test 127
Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities 128
Some Basic Conditioning Phenomena 129
Acquisition 129
Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibition 130
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 133
Discrimination Training and Experimental Neurosis 136
Two Extensions to Classical Conditioning 138
Higher-Order Conditioning 138
And Furthermore: When Celebrities Misbehave 142
Sensory Preconditioning 143
Three Examples of Specificity in Classical Conditioning 146
Overshadowing 146
Blocking 147
Latent Inhibition 151
Advice for the Lovelorn 153
Additional Phenomena 154
Temporal Conditioning 154
Occasion Setting 154
External Inhibition 156
US Revaluation 156
Pseudoconditioning 158
Summary 160
Suggested Readings 161
Study Questions 161
Concept Review 162
Chapter Test 163
Answers to Chapter Test 166
Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Applications 167
Underlying Processes in Classical Conditioning 168
S-S Versus S-R Learning 168
Stimulus-Substitution Versus Preparatory-Response Theory 169
Compensatory-Response Model 171
And Furthermore: Conditioned Compensatory Responses and Drug Overdose 176
Rescorla-Wagner Theory 178
Advice for the Lovelorn 181
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning 182
Understanding Phobias 182
And Furthermore: The Ethics of the Little Albert Experiment 186
Treating Phobias 192
And Furthermore: Was Sigmund Freud a Behavior Analyst? 197
Aversion Therapy for Eliminating Problem Behaviors 199
Medical Applications of Classical Conditioning 201
And Furthermore: Classical Conditioning, Gulf War Syndrome, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity 203
Summary 204
Suggested Readings 206
Study Questions 206
Concept Review 207
Chapter Test 208
Answers to Chapter Test 210
Operant Conditioning: Introduction 211
Historical Background 213
Thorndike’s Law of Effect 213
Skinner’s Selection by Consequences 215
Operant Conditioning 217
Operant Behavior 218
Operant Consequences: Reinforcers and Punishers 220
Operant Antecedents: Discriminative Stimuli 223
Four Types of Contingencies 226
Positive Reinforcement 228
Negative Reinforcement 228
Positive Punishment 230
Negative Punishment 231
And Furthermore: Four Types of Contingencies: Tricky Examples 233
Positive Reinforcement: Further Distinctions 234
Immediate Versus Delayed Reinforcement 234
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers 235
And Furthermore: Learned Industriousness 238
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement 238
And Furthermore: Positive Reinforcement of Artistic Appreciation 240
Natural and Contrived Reinforcers 241
Shaping 243
Advice for the Lovelorn 246
And Furthermore: Training Ishmael 247
Summary 249
Suggested Readings 250
Study Questions 251
Concept Review 251
Chapter Test 253
Answers to Chapter Test 255
Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement 257
Schedules of Reinforcement 258
Continuous Versus Intermittent Schedules 258
Four Basic Intermittent Schedules 259
Other Simple Schedules of Reinforcement 267
Complex Schedules of Reinforcement 275
Theories of Reinforcement 280
Drive Reduction Theory 280
The Premack Principle 282
Response Deprivation Hypothesis 284
Behavioral Bliss Point Approach 285
Advice for the Lovelorn 287
Summary 287
Suggested Readings 288
Study Questions 289
Concept Review 289
Chapter Test 291
Answers to Chapter Test 294
Extinction and Stimulus Control 295
Extinction 296
Side Effects of Extinction 297
Advice for the Lovelorn 301
Resistance to Extinction 301
Spontaneous Recovery 305
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior 306
And Furthermore: Extinction of Bedtime Tantrums in Young Children 307
Stimulus Control 308
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 309
The Peak Shift Effect 312
Multiple Schedules and Behavioral Contrast 314
And Furthermore: St. Neots’ Margin 319
Fading and Errorless Discrimination Learning 320
Stimulus Control Procedures for the Study of Memory 322
Stimulus Control: Additional Applications 325
And Furthermore: Edwin Guthrie: Stimulus Control for the Practical Person 329
Summary 330
Suggested Readings 331
Study Questions 332
Concept Review 333
Chapter Test 334
Answers to Chapter Test 337
Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment 339
Escape and Avoidance 340
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance 342
Avoidance Conditioning and Phobias 345
And Furthermore: Repression: Avoidance of Distressing Thoughts? 346
Avoidance Conditioning and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 350
Punishment 353
Types of Punishment 353
Problems with the Use of Punishment 357
Benefits and the Effective Use of Punishment 358
Theories of Punishment 361
And Furthermore: Punishment and Procrastination 362
Effects of Noncontingent Punishment 365
Learned Helplessness 365
Masserman’s Experimental Neurosis 367
Advice for the Lovelorn 368
And Furthermore: Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Behavioral Perspective 370
Summary 371
Suggested Readings 373
Study Questions 373
Concept Review 374
Chapter Test 375
Answers to Chapter Test 378
Choice, Matching, and Self-Control 379
Choice and Matching 380
Concurrent Schedules 380
The Matching Law 382
Deviations from Matching 385
And Furthermore: Basketball and the Matching Law 386
Matching and Melioration 390
Advice for the Lovelorn 393
Self-Control 394
Skinner on Self-Control 394
Self-Control as a Temporal Issue 397
And Furthermore: B. F. Skinner: The Master of Self-Control 398
Mischel’s Delay of Gratification Paradigm 400
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Control 401
The Small-But-Cumulative Effects Model 410
And Furthermore: But Why Do I Sometimes Just Give Up? 412
Summary 413
Suggested Readings 414
Study Questions 414
Concept Review 415
Chapter Test 416
Answers to Chapter Test 419
Biological Dispositions in Learning 421
Preparedness and Conditioning 422
Preparedness in Classical Conditioning 422
And Furthermore: Conditioned Food Preferences 428
Preparedness in Operant Conditioning 428
Operant-Respondent Interactions 429
Instinctive Drift 429
Sign Tracking 431
Advice for the Lovelorn 433
Adjunctive Behavior 434
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics 434
Adjunctive Behavior in Humans 437
And Furthermore: Extreme Polydipsia: Not Just a “Rat Thing” 438
Adjunctive Behavior as Displacement Activity 438
Activity Anorexia 440
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics 440
Comparisons With Anorexia Nervosa 441
Underlying Mechanisms 443
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