Store

Test Bank for Human Anatomy & Physiology ,11th Edition by Elaine N Marieb Katja N. Hoehn

By: Elaine N Marieb Katja N. Hoehn
ISBN-10: 0134580990
/ ISBN-13: 9780134807355

Resource Type Information

Edition: 11th Edition
Authors: Elaine N Marieb Katja N. Hoehn
Secure Stripe Payment Logo.png

$30.00 $28.50

Instant Download to your account.

Description

    • Unifying Themes
    • New to the Eleventh Edition
    • Other Highlights of New Content

Contents

Unit 1 Organization of the Body

    • 1 The Human Body: An Orientation
    • 1.1 Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology)
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Topics of Anatomy
    • Studying Anatomy
    • Topics of Physiology
    • Complementarity of Structure and Function
    • 1.2 The body’s organization ranges from atoms to the entire organism
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 1.3 What are the requirements for life?
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Necessary Life Functions
    • Maintaining Boundaries
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness
    • Digestion
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
    • Reproduction
    • Growth
    • Survival Needs
    • 1.4 Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Homeostatic Control
    • Negative Feedback Mechanisms
    • Positive Feedback Mechanisms
    • Homeostatic Imbalance
    • 1.5 Anatomical terms describe body directions, regions, and planes
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Anatomical Position and Directional Terms
    • Regional Terms
    • Body Planes and Sections
    • 1.6 Many internal organs lie in membrane-lined body cavities
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Dorsal Body Cavity
    • Ventral Body Cavity
    • Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity
    • Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
    • Other Body Cavities
    • Chapter Summary
    • 1.1 Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology) (pp. 2–3)
    • Topics of Anatomy (p. 2)
    • Studying Anatomy (p. 2)
    • Topics of Physiology (pp. 2–3)
    • Complementarity of Structure and Function (p. 3)
    • 1.2 The body’s organization ranges from atoms to the entire organism (pp. 4–5)
    • 1.3 What are the requirements for life? (pp. 5–9)
    • 1.4 Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback (pp. 9–12)
    • Homeostatic Control (pp. 9–12)
    • Homeostatic Imbalance (p. 12)
    • 1.5 Anatomical terms describe body directions, regions, and planes (pp. 12–17)
    • Anatomical Position and Directional Terms (pp. 12–13)
    • Regional Terms (p. 13)
    • Body Planes and Sections (pp. 13–17)
    • 1.6 Many internal organs lie in membrane-lined body cavities (pp. 17–20)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 2 Chemistry Comes Alive
    • Part 1 Basic Chemistry
    • 2.1 Matter is the stuff of the universe and energy moves matter
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Matter
    • States of Matter
    • Energy
    • Kinetic versus Potential Energy
    • Forms of Energy
    • Converting Forms of Energy
    • 2.2 The properties of an element depend on the structure of its atoms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Structure of Atoms
    • Identifying Elements
    • Atomic Number
    • Mass Number and Isotopes
    • Atomic Weight
    • Radioisotopes
    • 2.3 Atoms bound together form molecules; different molecules can make mixtures
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Molecules and Compounds
    • Mixtures
    • Solutions
    • Concentration of Solutions
    • Colloids
    • Suspensions
    • Distinguishing Mixtures from Compounds
    • 2.4 Three types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Role of Electrons in Chemical Bonding
    • Types of Chemical Bonds
    • Ionic Bonds
    • Covalent Bonds
    • Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
    • Hydrogen Bonds
    • 2.5 Chemical reactions occur when electrons are shared, gained, or lost
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Chemical Equations
    • Types of Chemical Reactions
    • Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions
    • Reversibility of Chemical Reactions
    • Factors Influencing the Rate of Chemical Reactions
    • Part 2 Biochemistry
    • 2.6 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, and many acids and bases
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Water
    • Salts
    • Acids and Bases
    • Acids
    • Bases
    • pH: Acid-Base Concentration
    • Neutralization
    • Buffers
    • 2.7 Organic compounds are made by dehydration synthesis and broken down by hydrolysis
    • Learning Outcome
    • 2.8 Carbohydrates provide an easily used energy source for the body
    • Learning Outcome
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
    • Carbohydrate Functions
    • 2.9 Lipids insulate body organs, build cell membranes, and provide stored energy
    • Learning Outcome
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
    • Eicosanoids
    • 2.10 Proteins are the body’s basic structural material and have many vital functions
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Amino Acids and Peptide Bonds
    • Structural Levels of Proteins
    • Fibrous and Globular Proteins
    • Protein Denaturation
    • Enzymes and Enzyme Activity
    • Characteristics of Enzymes
    • Enzyme Action
    • 2.11 DNA and RNA store, transmit, and help express genetic information
    • Learning Outcome
    • Roles of DNA and RNA
    • Structure of DNA and RNA
    • 2.12 ATP transfers energy to other compounds
    • Learning Outcome
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Basic Chemistry
    • 2.1 Matter is the stuff of the universe and energy moves matter (pp. 24–25)
    • Matter (p. 24)
    • Energy (pp. 24–25)
    • 2.2 The properties of an element depend on the structure of its atoms (pp. 25–28)
    • Structure of Atoms (pp. 25–27)
    • Identifying Elements (pp. 27–28)
    • Radioisotopes (p. 28)
    • 2.3 Atoms bound together form molecules; different molecules can make mixtures (pp. 28–30)
    • Molecules and Compounds (pp. 28–29)
    • Mixtures (pp. 29–30)
    • Distinguishing Mixtures from Compounds (p. 30)
    • 2.4 Three types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen (pp. 31–35)
    • The Role of Electrons in Chemical Bonding (pp. 31–32)
    • Types of Chemical Bonds (pp. 32–35)
    • 2.5 Chemical reactions occur when electrons are shared, gained, or lost (pp. 35–38)
    • Chemical Equations (pp. 35–36)
    • Types of Chemical Reactions (pp. 36–37)
    • Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions (p. 37)
    • Reversibility of Chemical Reactions (p. 37)
    • Factors Influencing the Rate of Chemical Reactions (pp. 37–38)
    • Part 2 Biochemistry
    • 2.6 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, and many acids and bases (pp. 38–41)
    • Water (p. 38)
    • Salts (p. 39)
    • Acids and Bases (pp. 39–41)
    • 2.7 Organic compounds are made by dehydration synthesis and broken down by hydrolysis (pp. 41–43)
    • 2.8 Carbohydrates provide an easily used energy source for the body (pp. 43–45)
    • 2.9 Lipids insulate body organs, build cell membranes, and provide stored energy (pp. 45–48)
    • 2.10 Proteins are the body’s basic structural material and have many vital functions (pp. 48–53)
    • 2.11 DNA and RNA store, transmit, and help express genetic information (pp. 53–55)
    • 2.12 ATP transfers energy to other compounds (pp. 55–56)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 3 Cells: The Living Units
    • 3.1 Cells are the smallest unit of life
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Extracellular Materials
    • Part 1 Plasma Membrane
    • 3.2 The plasma membrane is a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Membrane Lipids
    • Phospholipids
    • Cholesterol
    • Membrane Proteins
    • Integral Proteins
    • Peripheral Proteins
    • Membrane Carbohydrates and the Glycocalyx
    • Cell Junctions
    • Tight Junctions
    • Desmosomes
    • Gap Junctions
    • 3.3 Passive membrane transport is diffusion of molecules down their concentration gradient
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Simple Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Tonicity
    • Summary of Passive Membrane Transport
    • 3.4 Active membrane transport directly or indirectly uses ATP
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Active Transport
    • Primary Active Transport
    • Secondary Active Transport (Cotransport)
    • Vesicular Transport
    • Endocytosis
    • Exocytosis
    • 3.5 Selective diffusion establishes the membrane potential
    • Learning Outcome
    • K+ Is the Key Player
    • Active Transport Maintains Electrochemical Gradients
    • 3.6 Cell adhesion molecules and membrane receptors allow the cell to interact with its environment
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Roles of Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
    • Roles of Plasma Membrane Receptors
    • Contact Signaling
    • Chemical Signaling
    • Part 2 The Cytoplasm
    • Learning Outcome
    • 3.7 Cytoplasmic organelles each perform a specialized task
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Peroxisomes
    • Lysosomes
    • The Endomembrane System
    • Cytoskeleton
    • Microfilaments
    • Intermediate Filaments
    • Microtubules
    • Centrosome and Centrioles
    • 3.8 Cilia and microvilli are two main types of cellular extensions
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Cilia and Flagella
    • Microvilli
    • Part 3 Nucleus
    • 3.9 The nucleus includes the nuclear envelope, the nucleolus, and chromatin
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Nuclear Envelope
    • Nucleoli
    • Chromatin
    • 3.10 The cell cycle consists of interphase and a mitotic phase
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Interphase
    • Subphases
    • DNA Replication
    • Cell Division
    • Control of Cell Division
    • 3.11 Messenger RNA carries instructions from DNA for building proteins
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Role of RNA in Protein Synthesis
    • Transcription
    • Processing of mRNA
    • Translation
    • Genetic Code
    • Role of tRNA
    • Sequence of Events in Translation
    • Processing in the Rough ER
    • Summary: From DNA to Proteins
    • Other Roles of DNA
    • 3.12 Autophagy and proteasomes dispose of unneeded organelles and proteins; apoptosis disposes of unneeded cells
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Autophagy
    • Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway
    • Apoptosis
    • Cell Destruction and Modified Rates of Cell Division
    • Cell Aging
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 3.1 Cells are the smallest unit of life (pp. 61–63)
    • Part 1 Plasma Membrane
    • 3.2 The plasma membrane is a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins (pp. 63–68)
    • 3.3 Passive membrane transport is diffusion of molecules down their concentration gradient (pp. 68 –73)
    • 3.4 Active membrane transport directly or indirectly uses ATP (pp. 73–79)
    • 3.5 Selective diffusion establishes the membrane potential (pp. 79–81)
    • 3.6 Cell adhesion molecules and membrane receptors allow the cell to interact with its environment (pp. 81– 83)
    • Part 2 The Cytoplasm
    • 3.7 Cytoplasmic organelles each perform a specialized task (pp. 83–89)
    • 3.8 Cilia and microvilli are two main types of cellular extensions (pp. 90–91)
    • Part 3 Nucleus
    • 3.9 The nucleus includes the nuclear envelope, the nucleolus, and chromatin (pp. 91–96)
    • 3.10 The cell cycle consists of interphase and a mitotic phase (pp. 96–98)
    • 3.11 Messenger RNA carries instructions from DNA for building proteins (pp. 98–108)
    • 3.12 Autophagy and proteasomes dispose of unneeded organelles and proteins; apoptosis disposes of unneeded cells (pp. 108–109)
    • Developmental Aspects of Cells (pp. 109–110)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 4 Tissue: The Living Fabric
    • 4.1 Tissue Samples are Fixed, Sliced, and Stained for Microscopy
    • Learning Outcome
    • 4.2 Epithelial Tissue Covers Body Surfaces, Lines Cavities, and Forms Glands
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Special Characteristics of Epithelium
    • Polarity
    • Specialized Contacts
    • Supported by Connective Tissue
    • Avascular but Innervated
    • Regeneration
    • Classification of Epithelial Tissue
    • Simple Epithelia
    • Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Stratified Epithelia
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Stratified Cuboidal and Columnar Epithelia
    • Transitional Epithelium
    • Glandular Epithelia
    • Endocrine Glands
    • Exocrine Glands
    • Unicellular Exocrine Glands
    • Multicellular Exocrine Glands
    • 4.3 Connective Tissue is the Most Abundant and Widely Distributed Tissue in the Body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue
    • Structural Components of Connective Tissue
    • Ground Substance
    • Connective Tissue Fibers
    • Collagen Fibers
    • Elastic Fibers
    • Reticular Fibers
    • Connective Tissue Cells
    • Types of Connective Tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper—Loose Connective Tissues
    • Areolar Connective Tissue
    • Adipose (Fat) Tissue
    • Reticular Connective Tissue
    • Connective Tissue Proper—Dense Connective Tissues
    • Dense Regular Connective Tissue
    • Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    • Elastic Connective Tissue
    • Cartilage
    • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Elastic Cartilage
    • Fibrocartilage
    • Bone (Osseous Tissue)
    • Blood
    • 4.4 Muscle Tissue is Responsible for Body Movement
    • Learning Outcome
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
    • 4.5 Nervous Tissue is a Specialized Tissue of the Nervous System
    • Learning Outcome
    • 4.6 The Cutaneous Membrane is Dry; Mucous and Serous Membranes are Wet
    • Learning Outcome
    • Cutaneous Membrane
    • Mucous Membranes
    • Serous Membranes
    • 4.7 Tissue Repair Involves Inflammation, Organization, and Regeneration
    • Learning Outcome
    • Steps of Tissue Repair
    • Regenerative Capacity of Different Tissues
    • Developmental Aspects of Tissues
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 4.1 Tissue Samples are Fixed, Sliced, and Stained for Microscopy (p. 117)
    • 4.2 Epithelial Tissue Covers Body Surfaces, Lines Cavities, and Forms Glands (pp. 117–126)
    • Special Characteristics of Epithelium (pp. 117–118)
    • Classification of Epithelial Tissue (pp. 118–123)
    • Glandular Epithelia (pp. 123–126)
    • 4.3 Connective Tissue is the Most Abundant and Widely Distributed Tissue in the Body (pp. 126–138)
    • Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue (pp. 126–127)
    • Structural Components of Connective Tissue (pp. 127–129)
    • Types of Connective Tissue (pp. 129–138)
    • 4.4 Muscle Tissue is Responsible for Body Movement (pp. 138–140)
    • 4.5 Nervous Tissue is a Specialized Tissue of the Nervous System (pp. 140–141)
    • 4.6 The Cutaneous Membrane is Dry; Mucous and Serous Membranes are Wet (pp. 141–142)
    • 4.7 Tissue Repair Involves Inflammation, Organization, and Regeneration (pp. 142–146)
    • Developmental Aspects of Tissues (p. 146)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize

Unit 2 Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body

    • 5 The Integumentary System
    • 5.1 The Skin Consists of Two Layers: the Epidermis and Dermis
    • Learning Outcome
    • 5.2 The Epidermis is a Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Cells of the Epidermis
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Dendritic Cells
    • Tactile Epithelial Cells
    • Layers of the Epidermis
    • Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
    • Stratum Spinosum (Prickly Layer)
    • Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)
    • Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer)
    • Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)
    • 5.3 The Dermis Consists of Papillary Dermis and Reticular Dermis
    • Learning Outcome
    • Papillary Dermis
    • Reticular Dermis
    • 5.4 Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin Determine Skin Color
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 5.5 Hair Consists of Dead, Keratinized Cells
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Structure of a Hair
    • Structure of a Hair Follicle
    • Types and Growth of Hair
    • Hair Thinning and Baldness
    • 5.6 Nails are Scale-Like Modifications of the Epidermis
    • Learning Outcome
    • 5.7 Sweat Glands Help Control Body Temperature, and Sebaceous Glands Secrete Sebum
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Eccrine Sweat Glands
    • Apocrine Sweat Glands
    • Sebaceous Glands
    • 5.8 First and Foremost, the Skin is a Barrier
    • Learning Outcome
    • Protection
    • Chemical Barriers
    • Physical Barriers
    • Biological Barriers
    • Body Temperature Regulation
    • Cutaneous Sensation
    • Metabolic Functions
    • Blood Reservoir
    • Excretion
    • Clinical 5.9 Skin Cancer and Burns are Major Challenges to the Body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Skin Cancer
    • Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Melanoma
    • Burns
    • Evaluating Burns
    • Treating Burns
    • Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System
    • From Infancy to Adulthood
    • Aging Skin
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 5.1 The Skin Consists of Two Layers: the Epidermis and Dermis (pp. 150–151)
    • 5.2 The Epidermis is a Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium (pp. 152–154)
    • 5.3 The Dermis Consists of Papillary Dermis and Reticular Dermis (pp. 154–156)
    • 5.4 Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin Determine Skin Color (pp. 156–157)
    • 5.5 Hair Consists of Dead, Keratinized Cells (pp. 157–160)
    • 5.6 Nails are Scale-Like Modifications of the Epidermis (pp. 160–161)
    • 5.7 Sweat Glands Help Control Body Temperature, and Sebaceous Glands Secrete Sebum (pp. 161–163)
    • 5.8 First and Foremost, the Skin is a Barrier (pp. 163–165)
    • 5.9 Skin Cancer and Burns are Major Challenges to the Body (pp. 165–167)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System (pp. 167, 169)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues
    • 6.1 Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage Help Form the Skeleton
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Structure, Types, and Locations
    • Hyaline Cartilages
    • Elastic Cartilages
    • Fibrocartilages
    • Growth of Cartilage
    • 6.2 Bones Perform Several Important Functions
    • Learning Outcome
    • 6.3 Bones are Classified by their Location and Shape
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 6.4 The Gross Structure of All Bones Consists of Compact Bone Sandwiching Spongy Bone
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gross Anatomy
    • Compact and Spongy Bone
    • Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones
    • Structure of a Typical Long Bone
    • Diaphysis
    • Epiphyses
    • Membranes
    • Blood Vessels and Nerves
    • Hematopoietic Tissue in Bones
    • Bone Markings
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
    • Cells of Bone Tissue
    • Osteoprogenitor Cells
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocytes
    • Bone Lining Cells
    • Osteoclasts
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone
    • Osteon
    • Canals and Canaliculi
    • Interstitial and Circumferential Lamellae
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Spongy Bone
    • Chemical Composition of Bone
    • Organic Components
    • Inorganic Components
    • 6.5 Bones Develop Either by Intramembranous or Endochondral Ossification
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Formation of the Bony Skeleton
    • Endochondral Ossification
    • Intramembranous Ossification
    • Postnatal Bone Growth
    • Growth in Length of Long Bones
    • Growth in Width (Thickness)
    • Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth
    • 6.6 Bone Remodeling Involves Bone Deposition and Removal
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Bone Resorption
    • Bone Deposition
    • Control of Remodeling
    • Hormonal Controls
    • Response to Mechanical Stress
    • Summary of Control of Remodeling
    • Clinical 6.7 Bone Repair Involves Hematoma and Callus Formation, and Remodeling
    • Learning Outcome
    • Fracture Classification
    • Fracture Treatment and Repair
    • Clinical 6.8 Bone Disorders Result from Abnormal Bone Deposition and Resorption
    • Learning Outcome
    • Osteomalacia and Rickets
    • Osteoporosis
    • Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
    • Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis
    • Paget’s Disease
    • Developmental Aspects of Bones
    • Birth to Young Adulthood
    • Age-Related Changes in Bone
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 6.1 Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage Help Form the Skeleton (pp. 174–175)
    • Basic Structure, Types, and Locations (p. 174)
    • Growth of Cartilage (p. 174)
    • 6.2 Bones Perform Several Important Functions (pp. 175–176)
    • 6.3 Bones are Classified by Their Location and Shape  (p. 176)
    • 6.4 The Gross Structure of All Bones Consists of Compact Bone Sandwiching Spongy Bone (pp. 176–184)
    • Gross Anatomy (pp. 177–179)
    • Microscopic Anatomy of Bone (pp. 180–182)
    • Chemical Composition of Bone (pp. 182–184)
    • 6.5 Bones Develop Either by Intramembranous or Endochondral Ossification (pp. 184–188)
    • Formation of the Bony Skeleton (pp. 184–186)
    • Postnatal Bone Growth (pp. 186–188)
    • 6.6 Bone Remodeling Involves Bone Deposition and Removal (pp. 188–190)
    • 6.7 Bone Repair Involves Hematoma and Callus Formation, and Remodeling (pp. 190–192)
    • 6.8 Bone Disorders Result from Abnormal Bone Deposition and Resorption (pp. 193–194)
    • Developmental Aspects of Bones (pp. 194–195)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 7 The Skeleton
    • Part 1 The Axial Skeleton
    • 7.1 The Skull Consists of 8 Cranial Bones and 14 Facial Bones
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Overview of Skull Geography
    • Cranium
    • Frontal Bone
    • Parietal Bones and the Major Sutures
    • Occipital Bone
    • Temporal Bones
    • Sphenoid Bone
    • Ethmoid Bone
    • Sutural Bones
    • Facial Bones
    • Mandible
    • Maxillary Bones
    • Zygomatic Bones
    • Nasal Bones
    • Lacrimal Bones
    • Palatine Bones
    • Vomer
    • Inferior Nasal Conchae
    • The Hyoid Bone
    • Special Characteristics of the Orbits and Nasal Cavity
    • The Orbits
    • The Nasal Cavity
    • Paranasal Sinuses
    • 7.2 The Vertebral Column is a Flexible, Curved Support Structure
    • Learning Outcomes
    • General Characteristics
    • Regions and Curvatures
    • Ligaments
    • Intervertebral Discs
    • General Structure of Vertebrae
    • Regional Vertebral Characteristics
    • Cervical Vertebrae
    • Thoracic Vertebrae
    • Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
    • 7.3 The Thoracic Cage is the Bony Structure of the Chest
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Sternum
    • Ribs
    • Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton
    • 7.4 Each Pectoral Girdle Consists of a Clavicle and a Scapula
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Clavicles
    • Scapulae
    • 7.5 The Upper Limb Consists of the Arm, Forearm, and Hand
    • Learning Outcome
    • Arm
    • Forearm
    • Ulna
    • Radius
    • Hand
    • Carpus (Wrist)
    • Metacarpus (Palm)
    • Phalanges (Fingers)
    • 7.6 The Hip Bones Attach to the Sacrum, Forming the Pelvic Girdle
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
    • Pelvic Structure and Childbearing
    • 7.7 The Lower Limb Consists of the Thigh, Leg, and Foot
    • Learning Outcome
    • Thigh
    • Leg
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Foot
    • Tarsus
    • Metatarsus
    • Phalanges (Toes)
    • Arches of the Foot
    • Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 The Axial Skeleton
    • 7.1 The Skull Consists of 8 Cranial Bones and 14 Facial Bones (pp. 201–217)
    • 7.2 The Vertebral Column is a Flexible, Curved Support Structure (pp. 218–224)
    • 7.3 The Thoracic Cage is the Bony Structure of the Chest (pp. 224–227)
    • Part 2 The Appendicular Skeleton
    • 7.4 Each Pectoral Girdle Consists of a Clavicle and a Scapula* (pp. 227–229)
    • 7.5 The Upper Limb Consists of the Arm, Forearm, and Hand* (pp. 230–236)
    • 7.6 The Hip Bones Attach to the Sacrum, Forming the Pelvic Girdle* (pp. 236–239)
    • 7.7 The Lower Limb Consists of the Thigh, Leg, and Foot* (pp. 240–245)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton (pp. 246–247)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 8 Joints
    • 8.1 Joints are classified into three structural and three functional categories
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 8.2 In fibrous joints, the bones are connected by fibrous tissue
    • Learning Outcome
    • Sutures
    • Syndesmoses
    • Gomphoses
    • 8.3 In cartilaginous joints, the bones are connected by cartilage
    • Learning Outcome
    • Synchondroses
    • Symphyses
    • 8.4 Synovial joints have a fluid-filled joint cavity
    • Learning Outcomes
    • General Structure
    • Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
    • Factors Influencing the Stability of Synovial Joints
    • Articular Surfaces
    • Ligaments
    • Muscle Tone
    • Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints
    • Gliding Movements
    • Angular Movements
    • Flexion
    • Extension
    • Abduction
    • Adduction
    • Circumduction
    • Rotation
    • Special Movements
    • Supination and Pronation
    • Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion of the Foot
    • Inversion and Eversion
    • Protraction and Retraction
    • Elevation and Depression
    • Opposition
    • Types of Synovial Joints
    • 8.5 Five examples illustrate the diversity of synovial joints
    • Learning Outcome
    • Temporomandibular Joint
    • Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint
    • Elbow Joint
    • Hip Joint
    • Knee Joint
    • Clinical 8.6 Joints are easily damaged by injury, inflammation, and degeneration
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Common Joint Injuries
    • Cartilage Tears
    • Sprains
    • Dislocations
    • Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions
    • Bursitis and Tendonitis
    • Arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Gouty Arthritis
    • Lyme Disease
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 8.1 Joints are classified into three structural and three functional categories (pp. 251–252)
    • 8.2 In fibrous joints, the bones are connected by fibrous tissue (pp. 252–253)
    • 8.3 In cartilaginous joints, the bones are connected by cartilage (pp. 253–254)
    • 8.4 Synovial joints have a fluid-filled joint cavity  (pp. 254–264)
    • General Structure (pp. 254–255)
    • Bursae and Tendon Sheaths (p. 255)
    • Factors Influencing the Stability of Synovial Joints (pp. 257–258)
    • Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (pp. 258–261)
    • Types of Synovial Joints (pp. 262–264)
    • 8.5 Five examples illustrate the diversity of synovial joints (pp. 264–272)
    • 8.6 Joints are easily damaged by injury, inflammation, and degeneration (pp. 272–276)
    • Developmental Aspects of Joints (p. 276)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue
    • 9.1 There are three types of muscle tissue
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Types of Muscle Tissue
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
    • Muscle Functions
    • 9.2 A skeletal muscle is made up of muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues
    • Learning Outcome
    • Nerve and Blood Supply
    • Connective Tissue Sheaths
    • Attachments
    • 9.3 Skeletal muscle fibers contain calcium-regulated molecular motors
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Myofibrils
    • Striations
    • Sarcomeres
    • Myofilaments
    • Molecular Composition of Myofilaments
    • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and T Tubules
    • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    • T Tubules
    • Triad Relationships
    • Sliding Filament Model of Contraction
    • 9.4 Motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to contract
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Background and Overview
    • Ion Channels
    • Anatomy of Motor Neurons and the Neuromuscular Junction
    • The Big Picture
    • Events at the Neuromuscular Junction
    • Generation of an Action Potential across the Sarcolemma
    • Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • Muscle Fiber Contraction: Cross Bridge Cycling
    • 9.5 Temporal summation and motor unit recruitment allow smooth, graded skeletal muscle contractions
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Motor Unit
    • The Muscle Twitch
    • Graded Muscle Contractions
    • Muscle Response to Changes in Stimulus Frequency
    • Muscle Response to Changes in Stimulus Strength
    • Muscle Tone
    • Isotonic and Isometric Contractions
    • Isotonic Contractions
    • Isometric Contractions
    • 9.6 ATP for muscle contraction is produced aerobically or anaerobically
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Providing Energy for Contraction
    • Direct Phosphorylation of ADP by Creatine Phosphate (Figure 9.16a)
    • Anaerobic Pathway: Glycolysis and Lactic Acid Formation (Figure 9.16b)
    • Aerobic Respiration (Figure 9.16c)
    • Energy Systems Used during Exercise
    • Muscle Fatigue
    • Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
    • 9.7 The force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle contractions are determined by a variety of factors
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Force of Muscle Contraction
    • Velocity and Duration of Contraction
    • Muscle Fiber Type
    • Load and Recruitment
    • 9.8 How does skeletal muscle respond to exercise?
    • Learning Outcome
    • Aerobic (Endurance) Exercise
    • Resistance Exercise
    • 9.9 Smooth muscle is nonstriated involuntary muscle
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Differences between Smooth and Skeletal Muscle Fibers
    • Contraction of Smooth Muscle
    • Mechanism of Contraction
    • Energy Efficiency of Smooth Muscle Contraction
    • Regulation of Contraction
    • Neural Regulation
    • Hormones and Local Chemical Factors
    • Special Features of Smooth Muscle Contraction
    • Response to Stretch
    • Length and Tension Changes
    • Types of Smooth Muscle
    • Unitary Smooth Muscle
    • Multi Unit Smooth Muscle
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 9.1 There are three types of muscle tissue (pp. 280–281)
    • Types of Muscle Tissue (p. 280)
    • Characteristics of Muscle Tissue (p. 280)
    • Muscle Functions (pp. 280–281)
    • 9.2 A skeletal muscle is made up of muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues (pp. 281–284)
    • 9.3 Skeletal muscle fibers contain calcium-regulated molecular motors (pp. 284–289)
    • 9.4 Motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to contract (pp. 290–298)
    • 9.5 Temporal summation and motor unit recruitment allow smooth, graded skeletal muscle contractions (pp. 298–303)
    • 9.6 ATP for muscle contraction is produced aerobically or anaerobically (pp. 303–306)
    • 9.7 The force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle contractions are determined by a variety of factors (pp. 306–309)
    • 9.8 How does skeletal muscle respond to exercise? (pp. 309–310)
    • 9.9 Smooth muscle is nonstriated involuntary muscle (pp. 310–316)
    • Differences between Smooth and Skeletal Muscle Fibers (pp. 311–314)
    • Contraction of Smooth Muscle (pp. 314–316)
    • Types of Smooth Muscle (p. 316)
    • Developmental Aspects of Muscles (pp. 316, 317, 319)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 10 The Muscular System
    • 10.1 For any movement, muscles can act in one of three ways
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 10.2 How are skeletal muscles named?
    • Learning Outcome
    • 10.3 Fascicle arrangements help determine muscle shape and force
    • Learning Outcome
    • 10.4 Muscles acting with bones form lever systems
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Levers: Power versus Speed
    • Classes of Levers
    • 10.5 A muscle’s origin and insertion determine its action
    • Learning Outcome
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 10.1 For any movement, muscles can act in one of three ways (p. 324)
    • 10.2 How are skeletal muscles named? (pp. 324–326)
    • 10.3 Fascicle arrangements help determine muscle shape and force (pp. 326–327)
    • 10.4 Muscles acting with bones form lever systems (pp. 327–329)
    • 10.5 A muscle’s origin and insertion determine its action (pp. 332–386)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize

Unit 3 Regulation and Integration of the Body

    • 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
    • 11.1 The Nervous System Receives, Integrates, and Responds to Information
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 11.2 Neuroglia Support and Maintain Neurons
    • Learning Outcome
    • Neuroglia in the CNS
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglial Cells
    • Ependymal Cells
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Neuroglia in the PNS
    • 11.3 Neurons are the Structural Units of the Nervous System
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Neuron Cell Body
    • Neuron Processes
    • Dendrites
    • The Axon: Structure
    • The Axon: Functional Characteristics
    • Axonal Transport
    • Myelin Sheath
    • Myelination in the PNS
    • Myelination in the CNS
    • Classification of Neurons
    • Structural Classification
    • Functional Classification
    • 11.4 The Resting Membrane Potential Depends on Differences in Ion Concentration and Permeability
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Principles of Electricity
    • Some Definitions: Voltage, Resistance, Current
    • Role of Membrane Ion Channels
    • Generating the Resting Membrane Potential
    • Differences in Ionic Composition
    • Differences in Plasma Membrane Permeability
    • Changing the Resting Membrane Potential
    • 11.5 Graded Potentials are Brief, Short-Distance Signals within a Neuron
    • Learning Outcome
    • 11.6 Action Potentials are Brief, Long-Distance Signals within a Neuron
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Generating an Action Potential
    • Threshold and the All-or-None Phenomenon
    • Propagation of an Action Potential
    • Coding for Stimulus Intensity
    • Refractory Periods
    • Conduction Velocity
    • 11.7 Synapses Transmit Signals between Neurons
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Electrical Synapses
    • Chemical Synapses
    • Information Transfer across Chemical Synapses
    • Synaptic Delay
    • 11.8 Postsynaptic Potentials Excite or Inhibit the Receiving Neuron
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Excitatory Synapses and EPSPs
    • Inhibitory Synapses and IPSPs
    • Integration and Modification of Synaptic Events
    • Summation by the Postsynaptic Neuron
    • Synaptic Potentiation
    • Presynaptic Inhibition
    • 11.9 The Effect of a Neurotransmitter Depends on its Receptor
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Classification of Neurotransmitters by Chemical Structure
    • Acetylcholine
    • Biogenic Amines
    • Amino Acids
    • Peptides
    • Purines
    • Gases and Lipids
    • Gasotransmitters
    • Endocannabinoids
    • Classification of Neurotransmitters by Function
    • Effects: Excitatory versus Inhibitory
    • Actions: Direct versus Indirect
    • Neurotransmitter Receptors
    • Channel-Linked Receptors
    • G Protein–Coupled Receptors
    • 11.10 Neurons Act Together, Making Complex Behaviors Possible
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Organization of Neurons: Neuronal Pools
    • Patterns of Neural Processing
    • Serial Processing
    • Parallel Processing
    • Types of Circuits
    • Developmental Aspects of Neurons
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 12 The Central Nervous System
    • 12.1 Folding During Development Determines the Complex Structure of the Adult Brain
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Brain Regions and Organization
    • Ventricles
    • 12.2 The Cerebral Hemispheres Consist of Cortex, White Matter, and the Basal Nuclei
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Motor Areas
    • Primary Motor Cortex
    • Premotor Cortex
    • Broca’s Area
    • Frontal Eye Field
    • Sensory Areas
    • Primary Somatosensory Cortex
    • Somatosensory Association Cortex
    • Visual Areas
    • Auditory Areas
    • Vestibular (Equilibrium) Cortex
    • Olfactory Cortex
    • Gustatory Cortex
    • Visceral Sensory Area
    • Multimodal Association Areas
    • Anterior Association Area
    • Posterior Association Area
    • Limbic Association Area
    • Lateralization of Cortical Functioning
    • Cerebral White Matter
    • Basal Nuclei
    • 12.3 The Diencephalon Includes the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus
    • Learning Outcome
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Epithalamus
    • 12.4 The Brain Stem Consists of the Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata
    • Learning Outcome
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongata
    • Structures of the Medulla Oblongata
    • Functions of the Medulla Oblongata
    • 12.5 The Cerebellum Adjusts Motor Output, Ensuring Coordination and Balance
    • Learning Outcome
    • Cerebellar Anatomy
    • Cerebellar Peduncles
    • Cerebellar Processing
    • Cognitive Functions of the Cerebellum
    • 12.6 Functional Brain Systems Span Multiple Brain Structures
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Limbic System
    • The Reticular Formation
    • 12.7 The Interconnected Structures of the Brain Allow Higher Mental Functions
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Language
    • Memory
    • Brain Wave Patterns and the EEG
    • Consciousness
    • Sleep and Sleep-Wake Cycles
    • Types of Sleep
    • How Sleep Is Regulated
    • Importance of Sleep
    • 12.8 The Brain is Protected by Bone, Meninges, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and the Blood Brain Barrier
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Meninges
    • Dura Mater
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Pia Mater
    • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    • Blood Brain Barrier
    • Clinical 12.9 Brain injuries and disorders have devastating consequences
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Traumatic Brain Injuries
    • Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVAs)
    • Degenerative Brain Disorders
    • Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Parkinson’s Disease
    • Huntington’s Disease
    • Diagnostic Procedures for Assessing CNS Dysfunction
    • 12.10 The Spinal Cord is a Reflex Center and Conduction Pathway
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gross Anatomy and Protection
    • Spinal Cord Cross-Sectional Anatomy
    • Gray Matter and Spinal Roots
    • White Matter
    • Clinical Spinal Cord Trauma and Disorders
    • Spinal Cord Trauma
    • Poliomyelitis
    • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    • 12.11 Neuronal Pathways Carry Sensory and Motor Information to and from the Brain
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Ascending Pathways to the Brain
    • Descending Pathways and Tracts
    • Direct (Pyramidal) Pathways
    • Indirect Pathways
    • Developmental Aspects of the Central Nervous System
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 13 The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity
    • Learning Outcome
    • Part 1 Sensory Receptors and Sensation
    • 13.1 Sensory Receptors are Activated by Changes in the Internal or External Environment
    • Learning Outcome
    • Classification by Stimulus Type
    • Classification by Location
    • Classification by Receptor Structure
    • Simple Receptors of the General Senses
    • Nonencapsulated (Free) Nerve Endings
    • Encapsulated Nerve Endings
    • 13.2 Receptors, Ascending Pathways, and Cerebral Cortex Process Sensory Information
    • Learning Outcomes
    • General Organization of the Somatosensory System
    • Processing at the Receptor Level
    • Generating a Signal
    • Adaptation
    • Processing at the Circuit Level
    • Processing at the Perceptual Level
    • Perception of Pain
    • Pain Tolerance
    • Visceral and Referred Pain
    • Part 2 Transmission Lines: Nerves and Their Structure and Repair
    • 13.3 Nerves are Cordlike Bundles of Axons that Conduct Sensory and Motor Impulses
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Structure and Classification
    • Clinical Regeneration of Nerve Axons
    • CNS Axons
    • PNS Axons
    • 13.4 There are 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves
    • Learning Outcome
    • Overview of Cranial Nerves
    • Composition of Cranial Nerves
    • 13.5 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves Innervate the Body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Innervation of Specific Body Regions
    • Cervical Plexus and the Neck
    • Brachial Plexus and Upper Limb
    • Axillary Nerve
    • Musculocutaneous Nerve
    • Median Nerve
    • Ulnar Nerve
    • Radial Nerve
    • Lumbosacral Plexus and Lower Limb
    • Lumbar Plexus
    • Sacral Plexus
    • Anterolateral Thorax and Abdominal Wall
    • Back
    • Innervation of Skin: Dermatomes
    • Innervation of Joints
    • Part 3 Motor Endings and Motor Activity
    • 13.6 Peripheral Motor Endings Connect Nerves to their Effectors
    • Learning Outcome
    • Innervation of Skeletal Muscle
    • Innervation of Visceral Muscle and Glands
    • 13.7 There are Three Levels of Motor Control
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Segmental Level
    • The Projection Level
    • The Precommand Level
    • Part 4 Reflex Activity
    • 13.8 The Reflex Arc Enables Rapid and Predictable Responses
    • Learning Outcome
    • Components of a Reflex Arc
    • 13.9 Spinal Reflexes are Somatic Reflexes Mediated by the Spinal Cord
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Stretch and Tendon Reflexes
    • Functional Anatomy of Muscle Spindles
    • The Stretch Reflex
    • Adjusting Muscle Spindle Sensitivity
    • The Tendon Reflex
    • The Flexor and Crossed-Extensor Reflexes
    • Superficial Reflexes
    • Abdominal Reflexes
    • Plantar Reflex
    • Developmental Aspects of the Peripheral Nervous System
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Sensory Receptors and Sensation
    • 13.1 Sensory Receptors are Activated by Changes in the Internal or External Environment (pp. 490–493)
    • 13.2 Receptors, Ascending Pathways, and Cerebral Cortex Process Sensory Information (pp. 493–496)
    • Part 2 Transmission Lines: Nerves and Their Structure and Repair
    • 13.3 Nerves are Cordlike Bundles of Axons that Conduct Sensory and Motor Impulses (pp. 496–498)
    • 13.4 There are 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves (pp. 498–507)
    • 13.5 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves Innervate the Body (pp. 507–517)
    • Part 3 Motor Endings and Motor Activity
    • 13.6 Peripheral Motor Endings Connect Nerves to their Effectors (p. 517)
    • 13.7 There are Three Levels of Motor Control  (pp. 517–519)
    • Part 4 Reflex Activity
    • 13.8 The Reflex Arc Enables Rapid and Predictable Responses (pp. 519–520)
    • 13.9 Spinal Reflexes are Somatic Reflexes Mediated by the Spinal Cord (pp. 520–526)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Peripheral Nervous System (p. 526)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 14 The Autonomic Nervous System
    • Learning Outcome
    • 14.1 The ANS Differs from the Somatic Nervous System in that it can Stimulate or Inhibit its Effectors
    • Learning Outcome
    • Effectors
    • Efferent Pathways and Ganglia
    • Neurotransmitter Effects
    • Overlap of Somatic and Autonomic Function
    • 14.2 The ANS Consists of the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions
    • Learning Outcome
    • Role of the Parasympathetic Division
    • Role of the Sympathetic Division
    • Key Anatomical Differences
    • 14.3 Long Preganglionic Parasympathetic Fibers Originate in the Craniosacral CNS
    • Learning Outcome
    • Cranial Part of Parasympathetic Division
    • Oculomotor Nerves
    • Facial Nerves
    • Glossopharyngeal Nerves
    • Vagus Nerves
    • Sacral Part of Parasympathetic Division
    • 14.4 Short Preganglionic Sympathetic Fibers Originate in the Thoracolumbar CNS
    • Learning Outcome
    • Sympathetic Pathways with Synapses in Trunk Ganglia
    • Pathways to the Head
    • Pathways to the Thorax
    • Sympathetic Pathways with Synapses in Collateral Ganglia
    • Pathways to the Abdomen
    • Pathways to the Pelvis
    • Sympathetic Pathways with Synapses in the Adrenal Medulla
    • 14.5 Visceral Reflex Arcs have the Same Five Components as Somatic Reflex Arcs
    • Learning Outcome
    • Visceral Sensory Neurons
    • Visceral Reflexes
    • 14.6 Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine are the Major ANS Neurotransmitters
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Cholinergic Receptors
    • Nicotinic Receptors
    • Muscarinic Receptors
    • Adrenergic Receptors
    • 14.7 The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions Usually Produce Opposite Effects
    • Learning Outcome
    • Antagonistic Interactions
    • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Tone
    • Cooperative Effects
    • Unique Roles of the Sympathetic Division
    • Localized versus Diffuse Effects
    • 14.8 The Hypothalamus Oversees ANS Activity
    • Learning Outcome
    • Clinical 14.9 Most ANS Disorders Involve Abnormalities in Smooth Muscle Control
    • Learning Outcome
    • Developmental Aspects of the ANS
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 14.1 The ANS Differs from the Somatic Nervous System in that it can Stimulate or Inhibit its Effectors (pp. 532–533)
    • 14.2 The ANS Consists of the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions (pp. 534–535)
    • 14.3 Long Preganglionic Parasympathetic Fibers Originate in the Craniosacral CNS (pp. 536–537)
    • 14.4 Short Preganglionic Sympathetic Fibers Originate in the Thoracolumbar CNS (pp. 538–542)
    • 14.5 Visceral Reflex Arcs have the Same Five Components as Somatic Reflex Arcs (pp. 542–543)
    • 14.6 Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine are the Major ANS Neurotransmitters (pp. 543–545)
    • 14.7 The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions Usually Produce Opposite Effects (pp. 545–547)
    • 14.8 The Hypothalamus Oversees ANS Activity (pp. 547–548)
    • 14.9 Most ANS Disorders Involve Abnormalities in Smooth Muscle Control (p. 548)
    • Developmental Aspects of the ANS (pp. 548–549)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 15 The Special Senses
    • Part 1 The Eye and Vision
    • 15.1 The Eye has Three Layers, a Lens, and Humors, and is Surrounded by Accessory Structures
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Accessory Structures of the Eye
    • Eyebrows
    • Eyelids
    • Conjunctiva
    • Lacrimal Apparatus
    • Extrinsic Eye Muscles
    • Structure of the Eyeball
    • Fibrous Layer
    • Sclera
    • Cornea
    • Vascular Layer
    • Choroid
    • Ciliary Body
    • Iris
    • Inner Layer (Retina)
    • Pigmented Layer of the Retina
    • Neural Layer of the Retina
    • Internal Chambers and Fluids
    • Lens
    • 15.2 The Cornea and Lens Focus Light on the Retina
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Overview: Light and Optics
    • Wavelength and Color
    • Refraction and Lenses
    • Focusing Light on the Retina
    • Focusing for Distant Vision
    • Focusing for Close Vision
    • 15.3 Phototransduction Begins when Light Activates Visual Pigments in Retinal Photoreceptors
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Functional Anatomy of the Photoreceptors
    • Comparing Rod and Cone Vision
    • Visual Pigments
    • Phototransduction
    • Capturing Light
    • Light Transduction Reactions
    • Information Processing in the Retina
    • Light and Dark Adaptation
    • Light Adaptation
    • Dark Adaptation
    • 15.4 Visual Information from the Retina Passes through Relay Nuclei to the Visual Cortex
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Visual Pathway to the Brain
    • Depth Perception
    • Visual Processing
    • Part 2 The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
    • 15.5 Airborne Chemicals are Detected by Olfactory Receptors in the Nose
    • Learning Outcome
    • Location and Structure of Olfactory Receptors
    • Specificity of Olfactory Receptors
    • Physiology of Smell
    • Activation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons
    • Smell Transduction
    • The Olfactory Pathway
    • 15.6 Dissolved Chemicals are Detected by Receptor Cells in Taste Buds
    • Learning Outcome
    • Location and Structure of Taste Buds
    • Gustatory Epithelial Cells
    • Basal Epithelial Cells
    • Basic Taste Sensations
    • Physiology of Taste
    • Activation of Taste Receptors
    • Taste Transduction
    • Influence of Other Sensations on Taste
    • The Gustatory Pathway
    • Part 3 The Ear: Hearing and Balance
    • 15.7 The Ear has Three Major Areas
    • Learning Outcome
    • External Ear
    • Middle Ear
    • Internal Ear
    • Vestibule
    • Semicircular Canals
    • Cochlea
    • 15.8 Sound is a Pressure Wave that Stimulates Mechanosensitive Cochlear Hair Cells
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Properties of Sound
    • Frequency
    • Amplitude
    • Transmission of Sound to the Internal Ear
    • Resonance of the Basilar Membrane
    • Sound Transduction
    • Excitation of Inner Hair Cells
    • Role of Outer Hair Cells
    • 15.9 Sound Information is Processed and Relayed through Brain Stem and Thalamic Nuclei to the Auditory Cortex
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Auditory Pathway
    • Auditory Processing
    • Perception of Pitch
    • Detection of Loudness
    • Localization of Sound
    • 15.10 Hair Cells in the Maculae and Cristae Ampullares Monitor Head Position and Movement
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Maculae
    • Anatomy of a Macula
    • Activating Receptors of a Macula
    • The Cristae Ampullares
    • Anatomy of a Crista Ampullaris
    • Activating Receptors of the Crista Ampullaris
    • Vestibular Nystagmus
    • The Equilibrium Pathway to the Brain
    • Clinical 15.11 Abnormalities can Affect Hearing, Equilibrium, or Both
    • Learning Outcome
    • Deafness
    • Tinnitus
    • Ménière’s Syndrome
    • Developmental Aspects of the Special Senses
    • Taste and Smell
    • Vision
    • Hearing and Balance
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 The Eye and Vision
    • 15.1 The Eye has Three Layers, a Lens, and Humors, and is Surrounded by Accessory Structures (pp. 554–563)
    • Accessory Structures of the Eye (pp. 554–557)
    • Structure of the Eyeball (pp. 558–563)
    • 15.2 The Cornea and Lens Focus Light on the Retina (pp. 563–567)
    • 15.3 Phototransduction Begins when Light Activates Visual Pigments in Retinal Photoreceptors (pp. 567–573)
    • 15.4 Visual Information from the Retina Passes through Relay Nuclei to the Visual Cortex (pp. 573–575)
    • Part 2 The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
    • 15.5 Airborne Chemicals are Detected by Olfactory Receptors in the Nose (pp. 575–578)
    • 15.6 Dissolved Chemicals are Detected by Receptor Cells in Taste Buds (pp. 578–580)
    • Part 3 The Ear: Hearing and Balance
    • 15.7 The Ear has Three Major Areas (pp. 580–585)
    • 15.8 Sound is a Pressure Wave that Stimulates Mechanosensitive Cochlear Hair Cells (pp. 585–589)
    • 15.9 Information is Processed and Relayed Through Brain Stem and Thalamic Nuclei to the Auditory Cortex (pp. 589–590)
    • 15.10 Hair Cells in the Maculae and Cristae Ampullares Monitor Head Position and Movement (pp. 590–594)
    • 15.11 Ear Abnormalities can Affect Hearing, Equilibrium, or Both (pp. 594–595)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Special Senses (pp. 595–596)
    • Taste and Smell (p. 595)
    • Vision (p. 595)
    • Hearing and Balance (p. 596)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 16 The Endocrine System
    • 16.1 The Endocrine System is One of the Body’s Two Major Control Systems
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 16.2 The Chemical Structure of a Hormone Determines How it Acts
    • Learning Outcome
    • 16.3 Hormones Act through Second Messengers or by Activating Specific Genes
    • Learning Outcome
    • Plasma Membrane Receptors and Second-Messenger Systems
    • The Cyclic AMP Signaling Mechanism
    • The PIP2-Calcium Signaling Mechanism
    • Other Signaling Mechanisms
    • Intracellular Receptors and Direct Gene Activation
    • 16.4 Three Types of Stimuli Cause Hormone Release
    • Learning Outcome
    • Endocrine Gland Stimuli
    • Humoral Stimuli
    • Neural Stimuli
    • Hormonal Stimuli
    • Nervous System Modulation
    • 16.5 Cells Respond to a Hormone if They have a Receptor for that Hormone
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Half-Life, Onset, and Duration of Hormone Activity
    • Interaction of Hormones at Target Cells
    • 16.6 The Hypothalamus Controls Release of Hormones from the Pituitary Gland in Two Different Ways
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Pituitary-Hypothalamic Relationships
    • The Posterior Pituitary and Hypothalamic Hormones
    • Oxytocin
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Direct Actions on Metabolism
    • Indirect Actions on Growth
    • Regulation of Secretion
    • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Gonadotropins (FSH and LH)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • 16.7 The Thyroid Gland Controls Metabolism
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Location and Structure
    • Thyroid Hormone (TH)
    • Synthesis
    • Transport and Regulation
    • Calcitonin
    • 16.8 The Parathyroid Glands are Primary Regulators of Blood Calcium Levels
    • Learning Outcome
    • 16.9 The Adrenal Glands Produce Hormones Involved in Electrolyte Balance and the Stress Response
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Adrenal Cortex
    • Mineralocorticoids
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Regulation of Secretion
    • Actions
    • Gonadocorticoids (Adrenal Sex Hormones)
    • The Adrenal Medulla
    • 16.10 The Pineal Gland Secretes Melatonin
    • Learning Outcome
    • 16.11 The Pancreas, Gonads, and Most Other Organs Secrete Hormones
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Pancreas
    • Glucagon
    • Insulin
    • Factors That Influence Insulin Release
    • The Gonads and Placenta
    • Hormone Secretion by Other Organs
    • Adipose Tissue
    • Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Heart
    • Kidneys
    • Skeleton
    • Skin
    • Thymus
    • Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
    • Effects of Environmental Pollutants
    • Endocrine Function throughout Life
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 16.1 The Endocrine System is One of the Body’s Two Major Control Systems (pp. 602–603)
    • 16.2 The Chemical Structure of a Hormone Determines how it Acts (p. 603)
    • 16.3 Hormones Act through Second Messengers or by Activating Specific Genes (pp. 603–606)
    • 16.4 Three Types of Stimuli Cause Hormone Release (pp. 607–608)
    • 16.5 Cells Respond to a Hormone if They have a Receptor for that Hormone (pp. 608–609)
    • Half-Life, Onset, and Duration of Hormone Activity (pp. 608–609)
    • Interaction of Hormones at Target Cells (p. 609)
    • 16.6 The Hypothalamus Controls Release of Hormones from the Pituitary Gland in Two Different Ways (pp. 609–617)
    • Pituitary-Hypothalamic Relationships (pp. 610–611)
    • The Posterior Pituitary and Hypothalamic Hormones (pp. 611–614)
    • Anterior Pituitary Hormones (pp. 614–617)
    • 16.7 The Thyroid Gland Controls Metabolism (pp. 617–621)
    • 16.8 The Parathyroid Glands are Primary Regulators of Blood Calcium Levels (pp. 621–622)
    • 16.9 The Adrenal Glands Produce Hormones Involved in Electrolyte Balance and the Stress Response (pp. 622–627)
    • The Adrenal Cortex (pp. 623–626)
    • The Adrenal Medulla (p. 627)
    • 16.10 The Pineal Gland Secretes Melatonin (p. 627)
    • 16.11 The Pancreas, Gonads, and Most Other Organs Secrete Hormones (pp. 630–635)
    • The Pancreas (pp. 630–634)
    • The Gonads and Placenta (p. 634)
    • Hormone Secretion by Other Organs (pp. 634–635)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System (p. 636)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize

Unit 4 Maintenance of the Body

    • 17 Blood
    • 17.1 The functions of blood are transport, regulation, and protection
    • Learning Outcome
    • Transport
    • Regulation
    • Protection
    • 17.2 Blood consists of plasma and formed elements
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Physical Characteristics and Volume
    • Blood Plasma
    • Formed Elements
    • 17.3 Erythrocytes play a crucial role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Structural Characteristics
    • Functions of Erythrocytes
    • Production of Erythrocytes
    • Stages of Erythropoiesis
    • Regulation and Requirements for Erythropoiesis
    • Hormonal Controls
    • Dietary Requirements
    • Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes
    • Clinical Erythrocyte Disorders
    • Anemia
    • Blood Loss
    • Not Enough Red Blood Cells Produced
    • Too Many Red Blood Cells Destroyed
    • Polycythemia
    • 17.4 Leukocytes defend the body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • General Structural and Functional Characteristics
    • Granulocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Agranulocytes
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Production and Life Span of Leukocytes
    • Clinical Leukocyte Disorders
    • Leukemias
    • Infectious Mononucleosis
    • 17.5 Platelets are cell fragments that help stop bleeding
    • Learning Outcome
    • 17.6 Hemostasis prevents blood loss
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Step 1: Vascular Spasm
    • Step 2: Platelet Plug Formation
    • Step 3: Coagulation
    • Phase 1: Two Pathways to Prothrombin Activator
    • Phase 2: Common Pathway to Thrombin
    • Phase 3: Common Pathway to the Fibrin Mesh
    • Role of Anticoagulants
    • Clot Retraction and Fibrinolysis
    • Clot Retraction
    • Fibrinolysis
    • Factors Limiting Clot Growth or Formation
    • Factors Limiting Normal Clot Growth
    • Factors Preventing Undesirable Clotting
    • Clinical Disorders of Hemostasis
    • Thromboembolic Disorders
    • Thrombi and Emboli
    • Anticoagulant Drugs
    • Bleeding Disorders
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Impaired Liver Function
    • Hemophilias
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    • Clinical 17.7 Transfusion can replace lost blood
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Restoring Blood Volume
    • Transfusing Red Blood Cells
    • Human Blood Groups
    • ABO Blood Groups
    • Rh Blood Groups
    • Transfusion Reactions
    • Blood Typing
    • 17.8 Blood tests give insights into a patient’s health
    • Learning Outcome
    • Developmental Aspects of Blood
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 17.1 The functions of blood are transport, regulation, and protection (p. 643)
    • 17.2 Blood consists of plasma and formed elements (pp. 643–645)
    • 17.3 Erythrocytes play a crucial role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport (pp. 645–651)
    • 17.4 Leukocytes defend the body (pp. 651–656)
    • 17.5 Platelets are cell fragments that help stop bleeding (p. 657)
    • 17.6 Hemostasis prevents blood loss (pp. 657–663)
    • 17.7 Transfusion can replace lost blood (pp. 663–666)
    • 17.8 Blood tests give insights into a patient’s health (p. 666)
    • Developmental Aspects of Blood (p. 666)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 18 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
    • 18.1 The heart has four chambers and pumps blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuits
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
    • Size, Location, and Orientation of the Heart
    • Coverings of the Heart
    • Layers of the Heart Wall
    • Chambers and Associated Great Vessels
    • Atria: The Receiving Chambers
    • Ventricles: The Discharging Chambers
    • 18.2 Heart valves make blood flow in one direction
    • Learning Outcome
    • Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
    • Semilunar (SL) Valves
    • 18.3 Blood flows from atrium to ventricle, and then to either the lungs or the rest of the body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Coronary Circulation
    • Coronary Arteries
    • Coronary Veins
    • 18.4 Intercalated discs connect cardiac muscle fibers into a functional syncytium
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Microscopic Anatomy
    • How Does the Physiology of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Differ?
    • 18.5 Pacemaker cells trigger action potentials throughout the heart
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Setting the Basic Rhythm: The Intrinsic Conduction System
    • Action Potential Initiation by Pacemaker Cells
    • Sequence of Excitation
    • Modifying the Basic Rhythm: Extrinsic Innervation of the Heart
    • Action Potentials of Contractile Cardiac Muscle Cells
    • Electrocardiography
    • The P Wave
    • The QRS Complex
    • The T Wave
    • The P-R Interval
    • The S-T Segment
    • Depolarization and Repolarization in the Heart
    • 18.6 The cardiac cycle describes the mechanical events associated with blood flow through the heart
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
    • Heart Sounds
    • 18.7 Stroke volume and heart rate are regulated to alter cardiac output
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Regulation of Stroke Volume
    • Preload: Degree of Stretch of Heart Muscle
    • Contractility
    • Afterload: Back Pressure Exerted by Arterial Blood
    • Regulation of Heart Rate
    • Autonomic Nervous System Regulation of Heart Rate
    • Chemical Regulation of Heart Rate
    • Other Factors That Regulate Heart Rate
    • Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance of Cardiac Output
    • Developmental Aspects of the Heart
    • Heart Function throughout Life
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 18.1 The heart has four chambers and pumps blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuits (pp. 671–678)
    • 18.2 Heart valves make blood flow in one direction (pp. 679–680)
    • 18.3 Blood flows from atrium to ventricle, and then to either the lungs or the rest of the body (pp. 680–683)
    • 18.4 Intercalated discs connect cardiac muscle fibers into a functional syncytium (pp. 683–686)
    • 18.5 Pacemaker cells trigger action potentials throughout the heart (pp. 686–692)
    • 18.6 The cardiac cycle describes the mechanical events associated with blood flow through the heart (pp. 692–696)
    • 18.7 Stroke volume and heart rate are regulated to alter cardiac output (pp. 696–700)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Heart (pp. 700–702)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 19 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
    • Part 1 Blood Vessel Structure and Function
    • 19.1 Most Blood Vessel Walls have Three Layers
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 19.2 Arteries are Pressure Reservoirs, Distributing Vessels, or Resistance Vessels
    • Learning Outcome
    • Elastic Arteries
    • Muscular Arteries
    • Arterioles
    • 19.3 Capillaries are Exchange Vessels
    • Learning Outcome
    • Types of Capillaries
    • Capillary Beds
    • 19.4 Veins are Blood Reservoirs that Return Blood toward the Heart
    • Learning Outcome
    • Venules
    • Veins
    • Venous Valves
    • Venous Sinuses
    • 19.5 Anastomoses are Special Interconnections between Blood Vessels
    • Learning Outcome
    • Part 2 Physiology of Circulation
    • 19.6 Blood Flows from High to Low Pressure Against Resistance
    • Learning Outcome
    • Definition of Terms
    • Blood Flow
    • Blood Pressure (BP)
    • Resistance
    • Blood Viscosity
    • Total Blood Vessel Length
    • Blood Vessel Diameter
    • Relationship between Flow, Pressure, and Resistance
    • 19.7 Blood Pressure Decreases as Blood Flows from Arteries through Capillaries and Into Veins
    • Learning Outcome
    • Arterial Blood Pressure
    • Clinical Monitoring of Circulatory Efficiency
    • Taking a Pulse
    • Measuring Blood Pressure
    • Capillary Blood Pressure
    • Venous Blood Pressure
    • 19.8 Blood Pressure is Regulated by Short- and Long-Term Controls
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Short-Term Regulation: Neural Controls
    • Role of the Cardiovascular Center
    • Baroreceptor Reflexes
    • Chemoreceptor Reflexes
    • Influence of Higher Brain Centers
    • Short-Term Regulation: Hormonal Controls
    • Long-Term Regulation: Renal Mechanisms
    • Direct Renal Mechanism
    • Indirect Renal Mechanism
    • Summary of Blood Pressure Regulation
    • Clinical Homeostatic Imbalances in Blood Pressure
    • Hypertension
    • Primary Hypertension
    • Secondary Hypertension
    • Hypotension
    • Circulatory Shock
    • Hypovolemic Shock
    • Vascular Shock
    • Cardiogenic Shock
    • 19.9 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Controls Determine Blood Flow Through Tissues
    • Learning Outcome
    • Autoregulation: Intrinsic (Local) Regulation of Blood Flow
    • Metabolic Controls
    • Myogenic Controls
    • Long-Term Autoregulation
    • Blood Flow in Special Areas
    • Skeletal Muscles
    • The Brain
    • The Skin
    • The Lungs
    • The Heart
    • 19.10 Slow Blood Flow Through Capillaries Promotes Diffusion of Nutrients and Gases, and Bulk Flow of Fluids
    • Learning Outcome
    • Velocity of Blood Flow
    • Vasomotion
    • Capillary Exchange of Respiratory Gases and Nutrients
    • Fluid Movements: Bulk Flow
    • Hydrostatic Pressures
    • Colloid Osmotic Pressures
    • Hydrostatic-Osmotic Pressure Interactions
    • Part 3 Circulatory Pathways: Blood Vessels of The Body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 19.11 The Vessels of the Systemic Circulation Transport Blood to all Body Tissues
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Developmental Aspects of Blood Vessels
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Blood Vessel Structure and Function
    • 19.1 Most Blood Vessel Walls have Three Layers (p. 709)
    • 19.2 Arteries are Pressure Reservoirs, Distributing Vessels, or Resistance Vessels (p. 710)
    • 19.3 Capillaries are Exchange Vessels (pp. 710–712)
    • 19.4 Veins are Blood Reservoirs that Return Blood toward the Heart (pp. 712–714)
    • 19.5 Anastomoses are Special Interconnections between Blood Vessels (p. 714)
    • Part 2 Physiology of Circulation
    • 19.6 Blood Flows from High to Low Pressure Against Resistance (pp. 714–715)
    • 19.7 Blood Pressure Decreases as Blood Flows from Arteries Through Capillaries and Into Veins (pp. 716–718)
    • 19.8 Blood Pressure is Regulated by Short- and Long-Term Controls (pp. 718–725)
    • 19.9 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Controls Determine Blood Flow Through Tissues (pp. 725–730)
    • 19.10 Slow Blood Flow Through Capillaries Promotes Diffusion of Nutrients and Gases, and Bulk Flow of Fluids (pp. 730–734)
    • Part 3 Circulatory Pathways: Blood Vessels of The Body
    • 19.11 The Vessels of the Systemic Circulation Transport Blood to all Body Tissues (pp. 735–759)
    • Developmental Aspects of Blood Vessels (p. 759)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 20 The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues
    • 20.1 The lymphatic system includes lymphatic vessels, lymph, and lymph nodes
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Distribution and Structure of Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphatic Capillaries
    • Larger Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymph Transport
    • 20.2 Lymphoid cells and tissues are found in lymphoid organs and in connective tissue of other organs
    • Learning Outcome
    • Lymphoid Cells
    • Lymphoid Tissue
    • Lymphoid Organs
    • 20.3 Lymph nodes cleanse lymph and house lymphocytes
    • Learning Outcome
    • Structure of a Lymph Node
    • Circulation in the Lymph Nodes
    • 20.4 The spleen removes bloodborne pathogens and aged red blood cells
    • Learning Outcome
    • 20.5 MALT guards the body’s entryways against pathogens
    • Learning Outcome
    • Tonsils
    • Peyer’s Patches
    • Appendix
    • 20.6 T lymphocytes mature in the thymus
    • Learning Outcome
    • Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 20.1 The lymphatic system includes lymphatic vessels, lymph, and lymph nodes (pp. 767–770)
    • 20.2 Lymphoid cells and tissues are found in lymphoid organs and in connective tissue of other organs (pp. 770–771)
    • 20.3 Lymph nodes cleanse lymph and house lymphocytes (pp. 771–773)
    • 20.4 The spleen removes bloodborne pathogens and aged red blood cells (pp. 773–774)
    • 20.5 MALT guards the body’s entryways against pathogens (pp. 774–775)
    • 20.6 T lymphocytes mature in the thymus (pp. 776–777)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues (p. 777)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses
    • Part 1 Innate Defenses
    • 21.1 Surface barriers act as the first line of defense to keep invaders out of the body
    • Learning Outcome
    • 21.2 Innate internal defenses are cells and chemicals that act as the second line of defense
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Phagocytes
    • Phagocytosis
    • Natural Killer (NK) Cells
    • Inflammation: Tissue Response to Injury
    • Inflammatory Chemical Release
    • Vasodilation and Increased Vascular Permeability
    • Phagocyte Mobilization
    • Antimicrobial Proteins
    • Interferons
    • Complement
    • Fever
    • Part 2 Adaptive Defenses
    • 21.3 Antigens are substances that trigger the body’s adaptive defenses
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Complete Antigens and Haptens
    • Antigenic Determinants
    • Self-Antigens: MHC Proteins
    • 21.4 B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are cells of the adaptive immune response
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Lymphocytes
    • Lymphocyte Development, Maturation, and Activation
    • How Does Antigen Receptor Diversity in Lymphocytes Come About?
    • How Are Lymphocytes Educated during Maturation?
    • Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs)
    • Dendritic Cells
    • Macrophages
    • B Lymphocytes
    • 21.5 In humoral immunity, antibodies are produced that target extracellular antigens
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Activation and Differentiation of B Cells
    • Immunological Memory
    • Active and Passive Humoral Immunity
    • Antibodies
    • Basic Antibody Structure
    • Antibody Classes
    • Antibody Targets and Functions
    • Neutralization
    • Agglutination
    • Precipitation
    • Complement Activation
    • Monoclonal Antibodies as Clinical and Research Tools
    • Summary of Antibody Actions
    • 21.6 Cellular immunity consists of T lymphocytes that direct adaptive immunity or attack cellular targets
    • Learning Outcomes
    • MHC Proteins and Antigen Presentation
    • Class I MHC Proteins
    • Class II MHC Proteins
    • MHC Restriction
    • Activation and Differentiation of T Cells
    • Antigen Binding
    • Co-stimulation
    • Proliferation and Differentiation
    • Cytokines
    • Roles of Specific Effector T Cells
    • Helper T Cells
    • Activation of B Cells
    • Activation of CD8 Cells
    • Amplification of Innate Defenses
    • Subsets of TH Cells
    • Cytotoxic T Cells
    • Regulatory T Cells
    • Clinical Organ Transplants and Prevention of Rejection
    • Clinical 21.7 Insufficient or overactive immune responses create problems
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Immunodeficiencies
    • Autoimmune Diseases
    • Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases
    • Failure of Self-Tolerance
    • Hypersensitivities
    • Immediate Hypersensitivities
    • Subacute Hypersensitivities
    • Delayed Hypersensitivities
    • Developmental Aspects of the Immune System
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Innate Defenses
    • 21.1 Surface barriers act as the first line of defense to keep invaders out of the body (pp. 782–783)
    • 21.2 Innate internal defenses are cells and chemicals that act as the second line of defense (pp. 783–790)
    • Phagocytes (pp. 784–785)
    • Natural Killer (NK) Cells (p. 785)
    • Inflammation: Tissue Response to Injury (pp. 785–787)
    • Antimicrobial Proteins (pp. 788–789)
    • Fever (p. 789)
    • Part 2 Adaptive Defenses
    • 21.3 Antigens are substances that trigger the body’s adaptive defenses (pp. 791–792)
    • 21.4 B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are cells of the adaptive immune response (pp. 792–795)
    • Lymphocytes (pp. 792–794)
    • Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) (pp. 794–795)
    • 21.5 In humoral immunity, antibodies are produced that target extracellular antigens (pp. 796–801)
    • Activation and Differentiation of B Cells (pp. 796–797)
    • Immunological Memory (p. 797)
    • Active and Passive Humoral Immunity (pp. 797–798)
    • Antibodies (pp. 798–801)
    • 21.6 Cellular immunity consists of T lymphocytes that direct adaptive immunity or attack cellular targets (pp. 801–811)
    • MHC Proteins and Antigen Presentation (pp. 802–804)
    • Activation and Differentiation of T Cells (pp. 804–805)
    • Roles of Specific Effector T Cells (pp. 805–810)
    • Organ Transplants and Prevention of Rejection (p. 810–811)
    • 21.7 Insufficient or overactive immune responses create problems (pp. 811–814)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Immune System (p. 814)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 22 The Respiratory System
    • Part 1 Functional Anatomy
    • 22.1 The Upper Respiratory System Warms, Humidifies, and Filters Air
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
    • External Nose
    • Nasal Cavity
    • Nasal Conchae
    • Paranasal Sinuses
    • The Pharynx
    • The Nasopharynx
    • The Oropharynx
    • The Laryngopharynx
    • 22.2 The Lower Respiratory System Consists of Conducting and Respiratory Zone Structures
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Larynx
    • Basic Anatomy
    • Epiglottis
    • Vocal Folds
    • Epithelium of Larynx
    • Voice Production
    • Sphincter Functions of the Larynx
    • The Trachea
    • The Bronchi and Subdivisions
    • Conducting Zone Structures
    • Respiratory Zone Structures
    • The Respiratory Membrane
    • Alveoli
    • 22.3 Each Multilobed Lung Occupies its Own Pleural Cavity
    • Learning Outcome
    • Gross Anatomy of the Lungs
    • Blood Supply and Innervation of the Lungs
    • Pulmonary Circulation of the Lungs
    • Bronchial Circulation of the Lungs
    • Innervation of the Lungs
    • The Pleurae
    • Part 2 Respiratory Physiology
    • 22.4 Volume Changes Cause Pressure Changes, which Cause Air to Move
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity
    • Intrapulmonary Pressure (Ppul)
    • Intrapleural Pressure (Pip)
    • Transpulmonary Pressure
    • Pulmonary Ventilation
    • Inspiration
    • Expiration
    • Nonrespiratory Air Movements
    • Physical Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation
    • Airway Resistance
    • Alveolar Surface Tension
    • Lung Compliance
    • 22.5 Measuring Respiratory Volumes, Capacities, and Flow Rates Helps us Assess Ventilation
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Respiratory Volumes
    • Respiratory Capacities
    • Dead Space
    • Pulmonary Function Tests
    • Alveolar Ventilation
    • 22.6 Gases Exchange by Diffusion between the Blood, Lungs, and Tissues
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Basic Properties of Gases
    • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
    • Henry’s Law
    • Composition of Alveolar Gas
    • External Respiration
    • Partial Pressure Gradients and Gas Solubilities
    • Thickness and Surface Area of the Respiratory Membrane
    • Ventilation-Perfusion Coupling
    • Influence of Local PO2 on Perfusion
    • Influence of Local PCO2 on Ventilation
    • Balancing Ventilation and Perfusion
    • Internal Respiration
    • 22.7 Oxygen is Transported by Hemoglobin, and Carbon Dioxide is Transported in Three Different Ways
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Oxygen Transport
    • Association of Oxygen and Hemoglobin
    • Influence of PO2 on Hemoglobin Saturation
    • Influence of Other Factors on Hemoglobin Saturation
    • Carbon Dioxide Transport
    • The Haldane Effect
    • Influence of CO2 on Blood pH
    • Clinical Hypoxia
    • 22.8 Respiratory Centers in the Brain Stem Control Breathing with Input from Chemoreceptors and Higher Brain Centers
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Neural Mechanisms
    • Medullary Respiratory Centers
    • Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)
    • Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)
    • Pontine Respiratory Centers
    • Generation of the Respiratory Rhythm
    • Factors Influencing Breathing Rate and Depth
    • Chemical Factors
    • Influence of PCO2
    • Influence of PO2
    • Influence of Arterial pH
    • Summary of Interactions of PCO2, PO2, and Arterial pH
    • Influence of Higher Brain Centers
    • Hypothalamic Controls
    • Cortical Controls
    • Pulmonary Irritant Reflexes
    • The Inflation Reflex
    • 22.9 Exercise and High Altitude Bring about Respiratory Adjustments
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Exercise
    • High Altitude
    • Clinical 22.10 Respiratory Diseases are Major Causes of Disability and Death
    • Learning Outcome
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • Emphysema
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • COPD: Symptoms and Treatments
    • Asthma
    • Tuberculosis (TB)
    • Lung Cancer
    • Sleep Apnea
    • Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Functional Anatomy
    • 22.1 The Upper Respiratory System Warms, Humidifies, and Filters Air (pp. 820–824)
    • The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses (pp. 820–822)
    • The Pharynx (pp. 822–824)
    • 22.2 The Lower Respiratory System Consists of Conducting and Respiratory Zone Structures (pp. 824–831)
    • The Larynx (pp. 824–826)
    • The Trachea (pp. 826–828)
    • The Bronchi and Subdivisions (pp. 828–831)
    • 22.3 Each Multilobed Lung Occupies its Own Pleural Cavity (pp. 833–834)
    • Part 2 Respiratory Physiology
    • 22.4 Volume Changes Cause Pressure Changes, which Cause Air to Move (pp. 834–840)
    • Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity (pp. 835–836)
    • Pulmonary Ventilation (pp. 836–838)
    • Physical Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation (pp. 838–840)
    • 22.5 Measuring Respiratory Volumes, Capacities, and Flow Rates Helps us Assess Ventilation (pp. 840–842)
    • 22.6 Gases Exchange by Diffusion between the Blood, Lungs, and Tissues (pp. 842–847)
    • Basic Properties of Gases (pp. 843–844)
    • Composition of Alveolar Gas (p. 844)
    • External Respiration (pp. 844–846)
    • Internal Respiration (pp. 846–847)
    • 22.7 Oxygen is Transported by Hemoglobin, and Carbon Dioxide is Transported in Three Different Ways (pp. 847–852)
    • Oxygen Transport (pp. 847–850)
    • Carbon Dioxide Transport (pp. 850–852)
    • Hypoxia (p. 852)
    • 22.8 Respiratory Centers in the Brain Stem Control Breathing with Input from Chemoreceptors and Higher Brain Centers (pp. 853–857)
    • Neural Mechanisms (pp. 853–854)
    • Factors Influencing Breathing Rate and Depth (pp. 854–857)
    • 22.9 Exercise and High Altitude Bring about Respiratory Adjustments (pp. 857–858)
    • Exercise (p. 857)
    • High Altitude (pp. 857–858)
    • 22.10 Respiratory Diseases are Major Causes of Disability and Death (pp. 858–860)
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (pp. 858–859)
    • Asthma (p. 859)
    • Tuberculosis (TB) (p. 859)
    • Lung Cancer (pp. 859–860)
    • Sleep Apnea (p. 860)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System (pp. 860–863)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 23 The Digestive System
    • Part 1 Overview of The Digestive System
    • Learning Outcome
    • 23.1 What Major Processes Occur During Digestive System Activity?
    • Learning Outcome
    • 23.2 The GI Tract has Four Layers and is Usually Surrounded by Peritoneum
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Relationship of the Digestive Organs to the Peritoneum
    • Histology of the Alimentary Canal
    • The Mucosa
    • The Submucosa
    • The Muscularis Externa
    • The Serosa
    • Blood Supply: The Splanchnic Circulation
    • 23.3 The GI Tract has its Own Nervous System Called the Enteric Nervous System
    • Learning Outcome
    • Enteric Nervous System
    • Basic Concepts of Regulating Digestive Activity
    • Part 2 Functional Anatomy of The Digestive System
    • 23.4 Ingestion Occurs Only at the Mouth
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Mouth
    • The Lips and Cheeks
    • The Palate
    • The Tongue
    • The Salivary Glands
    • Composition of Saliva
    • Control of Salivation
    • The Teeth
    • Dentition and the Dental Formula
    • Tooth Structure
    • Clinical Tooth and Gum Disease
    • Digestive Processes of the Mouth
    • Mastication (Chewing)
    • 23.5 The Pharynx and Esophagus Move Food from the Mouth to the Stomach
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Pharynx
    • The Esophagus
    • Digestive Processes: Swallowing
    • 23.6 The Stomach Temporarily Stores Food and Begins Protein Digestion
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gross Anatomy of the Stomach
    • Microscopic Anatomy of the Stomach
    • Types of Gland Cells
    • Mucous Neck Cells
    • Parietal Cells
    • Chief Cells
    • Enteroendocrine Cells
    • The Mucosal Barrier
    • Digestive Processes in the Stomach
    • Regulation of Gastric Secretion
    • Cephalic (Reflex) Phase
    • Gastric Phase
    • Stimulation
    • Inhibition
    • Intestinal Phase
    • Stimulation
    • Inhibition
    • Mechanism of HCl Secretion
    • Regulation of Gastric Motility and Emptying
    • Response of the Stomach to Filling
    • Gastric Contractile Activity
    • Regulation of Gastric Emptying
    • 23.7 The Liver Secretes Bile; the Pancreas Secretes Digestive Enzymes
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Liver
    • Gross Anatomy of the Liver
    • Microscopic Anatomy of the Liver
    • Bile: Composition and Enterohepatic Circulation
    • Homeostatic Imbalances of the Liver
    • The Gallbladder
    • The Pancreas
    • Composition of Pancreatic Juice
    • Bile and Pancreatic Secretion into the Small Intestine
    • Anatomy of Duct Systems
    • Regulation of Bile and Pancreatic Secretion
    • 23.8 The Small Intestine is the Major Site for Digestion and Absorption
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gross Anatomy
    • Microscopic Anatomy
    • Modifications of the Small Intestine for Absorption
    • Histology of the Small Intestine Wall
    • Intestinal Juice
    • Digestive Processes in the Small Intestine
    • Sources of Enzymes for Digestion
    • Regulating Chyme Entry
    • Motility of the Small Intestine
    • After a Meal
    • Between Meals
    • Ileocecal Valve Control
    • 23.9 The Large Intestine Absorbs Water and Eliminates Feces
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gross Anatomy
    • Subdivisions of the Large Intestine
    • Relationship of the Large Intestine to the Peritoneum
    • Microscopic Anatomy
    • Bacterial Microbiota
    • Metabolic Functions
    • Keeping Pathogenic Bacteria in Check
    • Gut Bacteria in Health and Disease
    • Digestive Processes in the Large Intestine
    • Motility of the Large Intestine
    • Defecation
    • Part 3 Physiology of Digestion and Absorption
    • 23.10 Digestion Hydrolyzes Food into Nutrients that are Absorbed Across the Gut Epithelium
    • Learning Outcome
    • Mechanism of Digestion: Enzymatic Hydrolysis
    • Mechanisms of Absorption
    • 23.11 How is Each Type of Nutrient Processed?
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Absorption of Vitamins, Electrolytes, and Water
    • Vitamin Absorption
    • Electrolyte Absorption
    • Sodium, Chloride, and Bicarbonate
    • Potassium
    • Iron
    • Calcium
    • Water Absorption
    • Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System
    • Digestive System after Birth
    • Aging and the Digestive System
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Overview of The Digestive System
    • 23.1 What Major Processes Occur During Digestive System Activity? (pp. 870–871)
    • 23.2 The GI Tract has Four Layers and is Usually Surrounded by Peritoneum (pp. 871–874)
    • 23.3 The GI Tract has its Own Nervous System Called the Enteric Nervous System (pp. 874–875)
    • Part 2 Functional Anatomy of The Digestive System
    • 23.4 Ingestion Occurs Only at the Mouth (pp. 876–881)
    • 23.5 The Pharynx and Esophagus Move Food from the Mouth to the Stomach (pp. 881–884)
    • 23.6 The Stomach Temporarily Stores Food and Begins Protein Digestion (pp. 884–893)
    • 23.7 The Liver Secretes Bile; the Pancreas Secretes Digestive Enzymes (pp. 893–900)
    • 23.8 The Small Intestine is the Major Site for Digestion and Absorption (pp. 900–906)
    • 23.9 The Large Intestine Absorbs Water and Eliminates Feces (pp. 906–911)
    • Part 3 Physiology of Digestion and Absorption
    • 23.10 Digestion Hydrolyzes Food into Nutrients that are Absorbed Across the Gut Epithelium (p. 912)
    • 23.11 How is Each Type of Nutrient Processed? (pp. 912–918)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System (pp. 918–919)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Energy Balance
    • Part 1 Nutrients
    • Learning Outcomes
    • 24.1 Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins supply energy and are used as building blocks
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Carbohydrates
    • Dietary Sources
    • Uses in the Body
    • Dietary Requirements
    • Lipids
    • Dietary Sources
    • Uses in the Body
    • Dietary Requirements
    • Proteins
    • Dietary Sources
    • Uses in the Body
    • Dietary Requirements
    • 24.2 Most vitamins act as coenzymes; minerals have many roles in the body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Part 2 Metabolism
    • 24.3 Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Anabolism and Catabolism
    • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and the Role of Coenzymes
    • ATP Synthesis
    • 24.4 Carbohydrate metabolism is the central player in ATP production
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Oxidation of Glucose
    • Glycolysis
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Summary of ATP Production
    • Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis
    • Glycogenesis
    • Glycogenolysis
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • 24.5 Lipid metabolism is key for long-term energy storage and release
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Oxidation of Glycerol and Fatty Acids
    • Lipogenesis
    • Lipolysis
    • Synthesis of Structural Materials
    • 24.6 Amino acids are used to build proteins or for energy
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Degradation of Amino Acids
    • Protein Synthesis
    • 24.7 Energy is stored in the absorptive state and released in the postabsorptive state
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Catabolic-Anabolic Balance of the Body
    • Absorptive State
    • Carbohydrates
    • Triglycerides
    • Amino Acids
    • Hormonal Control of the Absorptive State
    • Postabsorptive State
    • Sources of Blood Glucose
    • Glucose Sparing
    • Hormonal and Neural Controls of the Postabsorptive State
    • Glucagon
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Other Hormones
    • 24.8 The liver metabolizes, stores, and detoxifies
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Cholesterol Metabolism and Regulation of Blood Cholesterol Levels
    • Cholesterol Transport
    • Blood Levels of Total Cholesterol, HDL, and LDL
    • Factors Regulating Blood Cholesterol Levels
    • Part 3 Energy Balance
    • Learning Outcome
    • 24.9 Neural and hormonal factors regulate food intake
    • Learning Outcome
    • Obesity
    • Regulation of Food Intake
    • Short-Term Regulation of Food Intake
    • Neural Signals from the Digestive Tract
    • Nutrient Signals Related to Energy Stores
    • Hormones
    • Long-Term Regulation of Food Intake
    • Additional Regulatory Factors
    • 24.10 Thyroxine is the major hormone that controls basal metabolic rate
    • Learning Outcome
    • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    • Age and Gender
    • Body Temperature
    • Stress
    • Thyroxine
    • Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)
    • 24.11 The hypothalamus acts as the body’s thermostat
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Core and Shell Temperatures
    • Mechanisms of Heat Exchange
    • Radiation
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Evaporation
    • Role of the Hypothalamus
    • Heat-Promoting Mechanisms
    • Heat-Loss Mechanisms
    • Fever
    • Developmental Aspects of Nutrition and Metabolism
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • Part 1 Nutrients
    • 24.1 Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins supply energy and are used as building blocks (pp. 927–931)
    • Carbohydrates (pp. 927–928)
    • Lipids (p. 928)
    • Proteins (pp. 928–931)
    • 24.2 Most vitamins act as coenzymes; minerals have many roles in the body (pp. 931–932)
    • Vitamins (p. 931)
    • Minerals (pp. 931–932)
    • Part 2 Metabolism
    • 24.3 Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body (pp. 934–936)
    • 24.4 Carbohydrate metabolism is the central player in ATP production (pp. 936–945)
    • Oxidation of Glucose (pp. 937–944)
    • Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis (pp. 944–945)
    • 24.5 Lipid metabolism is key for long-term energy storage and release (pp. 946–948)
    • 24.6 Amino acids are used to build proteins or for energy (pp. 948–949)
    • 24.7 Energy is stored in the absorptive state and released in the postabsorptive state (pp. 949–955)
    • Catabolic-Anabolic Balance of the Body (pp. 949–950)
    • Absorptive State (pp. 950–952)
    • Postabsorptive State (pp. 952–955)
    • 24.8 The liver metabolizes, stores, and detoxifies (pp. 955–960)
    • Part 3 Energy Balance
    • 24.9 Neural and hormonal factors regulate food intake (pp. 960–962)
    • 24.10 Thyroxine is the major hormone that controls basal metabolic rate (pp. 962–963)
    • 24.11 The hypothalamus acts as the body’s thermostat (pp. 963–968)
    • Developmental Aspects of Nutrition and Metabolism (pp. 968–969)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 25 The Urinary System
    • 25.1 The kidneys have three distinct regions and a rich blood supply
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Location and External Anatomy
    • Internal Gross Anatomy
    • Blood and Nerve Supply
    • 25.2 Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney
    • Learning Outcome
    • Renal Corpuscle
    • Glomerulus
    • Glomerular Capsule
    • Renal Tubule and Collecting Duct
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
    • Nephron Loop
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
    • Collecting Duct
    • Classes of Nephrons
    • Nephron Capillary Beds
    • Glomerulus
    • Peritubular Capillaries
    • Vasa Recta
    • Juxtaglomerular Complex (JGC)
    • 25.3 Overview: Filtration, absorption, and secretion are the key processes of urine formation
    • Learning Outcome
    • 25.4 Urine formation, step 1: The glomeruli make filtrate
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Filtration Membrane
    • Pressures That Affect Filtration
    • Outward Pressures
    • Inward Pressures
    • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
    • Regulation of Glomerular Filtration
    • Intrinsic Controls: Renal Autoregulation
    • Myogenic Mechanism
    • Tubuloglomerular Feedback Mechanism
    • Extrinsic Controls: Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms
    • Sympathetic Nervous System Controls
    • Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism
    • Other Factors Affecting GFR
    • 25.5 Urine formation, step 2: Most of the filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Tubular Reabsorption of Sodium
    • Sodium Transport across the Basolateral Membrane
    • Sodium Transport across the Apical Membrane
    • Tubular Reabsorption of Nutrients, Water, and Ions
    • Secondary Active Transport
    • Passive Tubular Reabsorption of Water
    • Passive Tubular Reabsorption of Solutes
    • Transport Maximum
    • Reabsorptive Capabilities of the Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    • Nephron Loop
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Duct
    • 25.6 Urine formation, step 3: Certain substances are secreted into the filtrate
    • Learning Outcome
    • 25.7 The kidneys create and use an osmotic gradient to regulate urine concentration and volume
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Countercurrent Multiplier
    • The Countercurrent Exchanger
    • Formation of Dilute or Concentrated Urine
    • Urea Recycling and the Medullary Osmotic Gradient
    • Diuretics
    • 25.8 Renal function is evaluated by analyzing blood and urine
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Renal Clearance
    • Urine
    • Chemical Composition
    • Physical Characteristics
    • Color and Transparency
    • Odor
    • pH
    • Specific Gravity
    • 25.9 The ureters, bladder, and urethra transport, store, and eliminate urine
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Ureters
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urinary Bladder Anatomy
    • Urine Storage Capacity
    • Urethra
    • Micturition
    • Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 25.1 The kidneys have three distinct regions and a rich blood supply (pp. 975–978)
    • Location and External Anatomy (pp. 975–976)
    • Internal Gross Anatomy (pp. 976–977)
    • Blood and Nerve Supply (pp. 977–978)
    • 25.2 Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney (pp. 978–983)
    • 25.3 Overview: Filtration, absorption, and secretion are the key processes of urine formation (pp. 983–984)
    • 25.4 Urine formation, step 1: The glomeruli make filtrate (pp. 984–989)
    • 25.5 Urine formation, step 2: Most of the filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood (pp. 989–994)
    • 25.6 Urine formation, step 3: Certain substances are secreted into the filtrate (pp. 994–995)
    • 25.7 The kidneys create and use an osmotic gradient to regulate urine concentration and volume (pp. 995–1000)
    • 25.8 Renal function is evaluated by analyzing blood and urine (pp. 1000–1002)
    • Renal Clearance (pp. 1000–1001)
    • Urine (pp. 1001–1002)
    • 25.9 The ureters, bladder, and urethra transport, store, and eliminate urine (pp. 1002–1006)
    • Ureters (p. 1002)
    • Urinary Bladder (pp. 1003–1004)
    • Urethra (p. 1004)
    • Micturition (pp. 1004–1005)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System (pp. 1006–1007)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
    • 26.1 Body fluids consist of water and solutes in three main compartments
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Body Water Content
    • Fluid Compartments
    • Composition of Body Fluids
    • Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
    • Comparison of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
    • Fluid Movement among Compartments
    • 26.2 Both intake and output of water are regulated
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Regulation of Water Intake
    • Regulation of Water Output
    • Influence of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Disorders of Water Balance
    • Dehydration
    • Hypotonic Hydration
    • Edema
    • 26.3 Sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate levels are tightly regulated
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Central Role of Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
    • Sodium Concentration versus Sodium Content
    • Regulation of Sodium Balance
    • Influence of Aldosterone and Angiotensin II
    • Influence of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
    • Influence of Other Hormones
    • Female Sex Hormones
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Cardiovascular Baroreceptors
    • Regulation of Potassium Balance
    • Regulatory Site: The DCT and Collecting Duct
    • Influence of Plasma Potassium Concentration
    • Influence of Aldosterone
    • Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance
    • Regulation of Anions
    • 26.4 Chemical buffers and respiratory regulation rapidly minimize pH changes
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Chemical Buffer Systems
    • Bicarbonate Buffer System
    • Phosphate Buffer System
    • Protein Buffer System
    • Respiratory Regulation of H+
    • 26.5 Renal regulation is a long-term mechanism for controlling acid-base balance
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Conserving Filtered Bicarbonate Ions: Bicarbonate Reabsorption
    • Generating New Bicarbonate Ions
    • Via Excretion of Buffered H+
    • Via NH4+ Excretion
    • Bicarbonate Ion Secretion
    • Clinical 26.6 Abnormalities of acid-base balance are classified as metabolic or respiratory
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis
    • Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis
    • Effects of Acidosis and Alkalosis
    • Respiratory and Renal Compensations
    • Respiratory Compensations
    • Renal Compensations
    • Developmental Aspects of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 26.1 Body fluids consist of water and solutes in three main compartments (pp. 1013–1015)
    • Body Water Content (p. 1013)
    • Fluid Compartments (p. 1013)
    • Composition of Body Fluids (pp. 1013–1015)
    • Fluid Movement among Compartments (p. 1015)
    • 26.2 Both intake and output of water are regulated (pp. 1016–1019)
    • Regulation of Water Intake (pp. 1016–1017)
    • Regulation of Water Output (p. 1017)
    • Influence of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) (pp. 1017–1018)
    • Disorders of Water Balance (pp. 1018–1019)
    • 26.3 Sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate levels are tightly regulated (pp. 1019–1026)
    • The Central Role of Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance (p. 1021)
    • Regulation of Sodium Balance (pp. 1021–1024)
    • Regulation of Potassium Balance (pp. 1024–1025)
    • Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance (pp. 1025–1026)
    • Regulation of Anions (p. 1026)
    • 26.4 Chemical buffers and respiratory regulation rapidly minimize pH changes (pp. 1026–1029)
    • Chemical Buffer Systems (pp. 1027–1028)
    • Respiratory Regulation of H+ (pp. 1028–1029)
    • 26.5 Renal regulation is a long-term mechanism for controlling acid-base balance (pp. 1029–1032)
    • 26.6 Abnormalities of acid-base balance are classified as metabolic or respiratory (pp. 1033–1035)
    • Developmental Aspects of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance (pp. 1035–1037)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize

Unit 5 Continuity

    • 27 The Reproductive System
    • 27.1 The male and female reproductive systems share common features
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gonads and Accessory Reproductive Organs
    • Reproductive Hormone Secretion
    • The HPG Axis
    • Activation of the HPG Axis at Puberty
    • Meiosis
    • Terminology of Meiosis
    • Sequence of Events in Meiosis
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
    • Meiosis Compared with Mitosis
    • Part 1 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
    • 27.2 The testes are enclosed and protected by the scrotum
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Scrotum
    • The Testes
    • 27.3 Sperm travel from the testes to the body exterior through a system of ducts
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Epididymis
    • The Ductus Deferens and Ejaculatory Duct
    • The Urethra
    • 27.4 The penis is the copulatory organ of the male
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Male Perineum
    • 27.5 The male accessory glands produce the bulk of semen
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Male Accessory Glands
    • The Seminal Glands
    • The Prostate
    • The Bulbo-Urethral Glands
    • Semen
    • Part 2 Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
    • 27.6 The male sexual response includes erection and ejaculation
    • Learning Outcome
    • Erection
    • Ejaculation
    • 27.7 Spermatogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to formation of sperm
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Histology of the Seminiferous Tubules
    • Spermatogenesis: Summary of Events in the Seminiferous Tubules
    • Mitosis of Spermatogonia: Forming Spermatocytes
    • Meiosis: Spermatocytes to Spermatids
    • Spermiogenesis: Spermatids to Sperm
    • Role of the Sustentocytes
    • 27.8 Male reproductive function is regulated by hypothalamic, anterior pituitary, and testicular hormones
    • Learning Outcome
    • Mechanism and Effects of Testosterone Activity
    • Part 3 Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
    • 27.9 Immature eggs develop in follicles in the ovaries
    • Learning Outcome
    • 27.10 The female duct system includes the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Uterine Tubes
    • The Uterus
    • Supports of the Uterus
    • The Uterine Wall
    • The Vagina
    • 27.11 The external genitalia of the female include those structures that lie external to the vagina
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Female Perineum
    • 27.12 The mammary glands produce milk
    • Learning Outcome
    • The Mammary Glands
    • Breast Cancer
    • Part 4 Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
    • 27.13 Oogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to the formation of ova
    • Learning Outcomes
    • The Relationship between Oocytes and Follicles
    • Products of Meiosis in Females
    • Comparison of Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis
    • Stages of Follicle Development
    • 27.14 The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase and the luteal phase
    • Learning Outcome
    • Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
    • Ovulation
    • Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
    • 27.15 Female reproductive function is regulated by hypothalamic, anterior pituitary, and ovarian hormones
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian Cycle
    • Establishing the Ovarian Cycle
    • Hormonal Interactions during the Ovarian Cycle
    • The Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle
    • Effects of Estrogens and Progesterone
    • 27.16 The female sexual response is more diverse and complex than that of males
    • Learning Outcome
    • Part 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • 27.17 Sexually transmitted infections cause reproductive and other disorders
    • Learning Outcome
    • Bacterial and Parasitic Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • Chlamydia
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
    • Viral Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
    • Genital Herpes
    • Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
    • Embryological and Fetal Events
    • Determination of Genetic Sex
    • Sexual Differentiation of the Reproductive System
    • Descent of the Gonads
    • Puberty
    • Menopause
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 27.1 The male and female reproductive systems share common features (pp. 1042–1047)
    • Part 1 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
    • 27.2 The testes are enclosed and protected by the scrotum (pp. 1048–1049)
    • 27.3 Sperm travel from the testes to the body exterior through a system of ducts (p. 1050)
    • 27.4 The penis is the copulatory organ of the male (pp. 1050–1052)
    • 27.5 The male accessory glands produce the bulk of semen (pp. 1052–1053)
    • Part 2 Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
    • 27.6 The male sexual response includes erection and ejaculation (pp. 1053–1054)
    • 27.7 Spermatogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to formation of sperm (pp. 1054–1058)
    • 27.8 Male reproductive function is regulated by hypothalamic, anterior pituitary, and testicular hormones (pp. 1059–1060)
    • Part 3 Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
    • 27.9 Immature eggs develop in follicles in the ovaries (pp. 1061–1062)
    • 27.10 The female duct system includes the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina (pp. 1062–1067)
    • 27.11 The external genitalia of the female include those structures that lie external to the vagina (p. 1067)
    • 27.12 The mammary glands produce milk (pp. 1068–1069)
    • Part 4 Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
    • 27.13 Oogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to the formation of ova (pp. 1069–1073)
    • 27.14 The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase and the luteal phase (pp. 1073–1074)
    • 27.15 Female reproductive function is regulated by hypothalamic, anterior pituitary, and ovarian hormones (pp. 1074–1078)
    • Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian Cycle (pp. 1074–1076)
    • The Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle (pp. 1076–1078)
    • Effects of Estrogens and Progesterone (p. 1078)
    • 27.16 The female sexual response is more diverse and complex than that of males (pp. 1078–1079)
    • Part 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • 27.17 Sexually transmitted infections cause reproductive and other disorders (pp. 1080–1081)
    • Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System (pp. 1081–1086)
    • Embryological and Fetal Events (pp. 1081–1084)
    • Puberty (p. 1084)
    • Menopause (pp. 1084, 1086)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 28 Pregnancy and Human Development
    • 28.1 Fertilization combines the sperm and egg chromosomes, forming a zygote
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Sperm Transport and Capacitation
    • Acrosomal Reaction and Sperm Penetration
    • Blocks to Polyspermy
    • Completion of Meiosis II and Fertilization
    • 28.2 Embryonic development begins as the zygote undergoes cleavage and forms a blastocyst en route to the uterus
    • Learning Outcome
    • Cleavage
    • Blastocyst Formation
    • 28.3 Implantation occurs when the embryo burrows into the uterine wall, triggering placenta formation
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Implantation
    • Formation of the Placenta
    • 28.4 Embryonic events include gastrula formation and tissue differentiation, which are followed by rapid growth of the fetus
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Extraembryonic Membranes
    • Gastrulation: Germ Layer Formation
    • Organogenesis: Differentiation of the Germ Layers
    • Specialization of the Endoderm
    • Specialization of the Ectoderm
    • Specialization of the Mesoderm
    • The Fetal Circulation
    • Occlusion of Vascular Shunts After Birth
    • Events of Fetal Development
    • 28.5 During pregnancy, the mother undergoes anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Anatomical Changes
    • Metabolic Changes
    • Physiological Changes
    • Gastrointestinal System
    • Urinary System
    • Respiratory System
    • Cardiovascular System
    • 28.6 The three stages of labor are the dilation, expulsion, and placental stages
    • Learning Outcome
    • Initiation of Labor
    • Stages of Labor
    • 28.7 An infant’s extrauterine adjustments include taking the first breath and closure of vascular shunts
    • Learning Outcome
    • 28.8 Lactation is milk secretion by the mammary glands in response to prolactin
    • Learning Outcome
    • 28.9 Assisted reproductive technology may help an infertile couple have offspring
    • Learning Outcome
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 28.1 Fertilization combines the sperm and egg chromosomes, forming a zygote (pp. 1092–1096)
    • 28.2 Embryonic development begins as the zygote undergoes cleavage and forms a blastocyst en route to the uterus (pp. 1097–1098)
    • 28.3 Implantation occurs when the embryo burrows into the uterine wall, triggering placenta formation (pp. 1098–1102)
    • 28.4 Embryonic events include gastrula formation and tissue differentiation, which are followed by rapid growth of the fetus (pp. 1102–1111)
    • Extraembryonic Membranes (p. 1102)
    • Gastrulation: Germ Layer Formation (pp. 1102–1103)
    • Organogenesis: Differentiation of the Germ Layers (pp. 1103–1107)
    • The Fetal Circulation (p. 1107)
    • Events of Fetal Development (pp. 1107–1111)
    • 28.5 During pregnancy, the mother undergoes anatomical, physiological, and metabolic changes (pp. 1112–1114)
    • Anatomical Changes (pp. 1112–1113)
    • Metabolic Changes (p. 1113)
    • Physiological Changes (pp. 1113–1114)
    • 28.6 The three stages of labor are the dilation, expulsion, and placental stages (pp. 1114–1116)
    • Initiation of Labor (pp. 1114–1115)
    • Stages of Labor (pp. 1115–1116)
    • 28.7 An infant’s extrauterine adjustments include taking the first breath and closure of vascular shunts (p. 1116)
    • 28.8 Lactation is milk secretion by the mammary glands in response to prolactin (pp. 1116–1119)
    • 28.9 Assisted reproductive technology may help an infertile couple have offspring (p. 1119)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize
    • 29 Heredity
    • 29.1 Genes are the vocabulary of genetics
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Gene Pairs (Alleles)
    • Genotype and Phenotype
    • 29.2 Genetic variation results from independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization
    • Learning Outcome
    • Chromosome Segregation and Independent Assortment
    • Crossing Over of Homologues and Gene Recombination
    • Random Fertilization
    • 29.3 Several patterns of inheritance have long been known
    • Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
    • Dominant Traits
    • Recessive Traits
    • Incomplete Dominance
    • Multiple-Allele Inheritance
    • Sex-Linked Inheritance
    • Polygene Inheritance
    • 29.4 Environmental factors may influence or override gene expression
    • Learning Outcome
    • 29.5 Factors other than nuclear DNA sequence can determine inheritance
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Beyond DNA: Regulation of Gene Expression
    • Small Noncoding RNAs
    • Epigenetic Marks
    • Extranuclear (Mitochondrial) Inheritance
    • Clinical 29.6 Genetic screening is used to detect genetic disorders
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Carrier Recognition
    • Fetal Testing
    • Human Gene Therapy
    • Related Clinical Terms
    • Chapter Summary
    • 29.1 Genes are the vocabulary of genetics (pp. 1125–1126)
    • 29.2 Genetic variation results from independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization (pp. 1126–1128)
    • 29.3 Several patterns of inheritance have long been known (pp. 1128–1131)
    • 29.4 Environmental factors may influence or override gene expression (p. 1131)
    • 29.5 Factors other than nuclear DNA sequence can determine inheritance (pp. 1131–1133)
    • 29.6 Genetic screening is used to detect genetic disorders (pp. 1133–1135)
    • Review Questions
    • Level 1 Remember/Understand
    • Level 2 Apply/Analyze
    • Level 3 Evaluate/Synthesize

Answers Appendix Answers to Check Your Understanding and Level 1 Review Questions

    • Chapter 1
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 2
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 3
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 4
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 5
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 6
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 7
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 8
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 9
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 10
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 11
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 12
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 13
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 14
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 15
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 16
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 17
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 18
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 19
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 20
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 21
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 22
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 23
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 24
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 25
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 26
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 27
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 28
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions
    • Chapter 29
    • Check Your Understanding
    • Review Questions

Appendix A The Metric System

Appendix B Functional Groups in Organic Molecules

Appendix C The Amino Acids

Appendix D Two Important Metabolic Pathways

Appendix E Periodic Table of the Elements*

Appendix F Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies

Glossary

Photo and Illustration Credits

    • Photo Credits
    • Text and Illustration Credits

Index

Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms


Additional Information


Resource Type:

Ebook Title:

Authors:

Edition:

11th-edition

Related Test Books

Reviews

Your #1 Online Study Guide Resource

* We don’t share your personal info with anyone. Check out our Privacy Policy for more information