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Test Bank for Fundamentals of US Health Care: Principles and Perspectives 1st Edition by Charles E. Yesalis

By: Charles E. Yesalis Robert M. Politzer Harry Holt
ISBN-10: 1305437357
/ ISBN-13: 9781305437357

Resource Type Information

Edition: 1st Edition
Authors: Charles E. Yesalis Robert M. Politzer Harry Holt
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Description

Front Matter

    • Preface
    • Introduction
    • Instructional Approach
    • Organization of This Text
    • Instructional Features
    • Ancillary Materials
    • Instructor Companion Site (ISBN: 978-1-4283-1736-9)
    • Instructor’s Manual
    • PowerPoint® Presentations
    • Computerized Test Bank in ExamView®
    • WebTUTOR™ on Blackboard (ISBN: 978-1-4283-1738-3)
    • WebTUTOR™ on WebCT (ISBN: 978-1-4283-1737-6)
    • Goals for the Future
    • About the Data
    • About the Authors
    • Dr. Charles E. Yesalis
    • Dr. Harry D. Holt
    • Dr. Robert M. Politzer
    • Acknowledgments
    • Author Signatures
    • Reviewers

CHAPTER 1: Introduction: The Big Picture

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • What Is Health and Health Care?
    • Figure 1–1: The organization and delivery of health care services.
    • The “Iron Triangle” of Health Care
    • Figure 1–2: The “iron triangle” of cost, access, and quality—altering one will likely alter the others.
    • Types of Health Care Services
    • Types of Care
    • Figure 1–3: Continuum of health care services, community-based to personal.
    • Table 1–1: Types of Preventive Care
    • Types of Medicine
    • Traditional or Conventional Medicine
    • Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
    • Major Stakeholders in the U.S. Health Care System
    • Illness and Disease, the Sick Role
    • Medicalization of Social Problems
    • Vignette
    • Table 1–2: Common Social Problems Targeted by Health Care
    • Should the Health Care System Be Responsible for Treating Social Problems?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Principle Problems of the U.S. Health Care System
    • Table 1–3: Principal Problems of the U.S. Health Care System
    • Figure 1–4: National health expenditures, 1960–2009.
    • Table 1–4: Insurance Status of the U.S. Population, 1999–2009
    • The Culture War—Polarization of the Nation
    • Figure 1–5: Health care tug-of-war.
    • Should We Have a Right to Health Care in the United States?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Environmental Change and Restructuring
    • Table 1–5: Environmental Change and Restructuring of the U.S. Health Care System
    • Public Image of Health Care Entities
    • Table 1–6: Public Opinion on Health Care Issues, 1997
    • The Authors’ Intentions
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 2: Health Status

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Definitions of Health
    • Measuring Health Status
    • Measures of Health
    • Mortality Rates
    • Infant Mortality Rate
    • Morbidity or Illness Rates
    • Disability
    • Perceived Health Status
    • Other Measures of Health
    • Medicalization of Social Problems
    • Years of Healthy Life
    • Major Challenges in Measuring Health Status
    • Why Measure Health Status?
    • Table 2–1: Life Expectancy from Birth in the United States and Selected Other Countries by Sex, 2006
    • Table 2–2: Healthy Life Expectancy from Birth in the United States and Selected Other Countries by Sex, 2003
    • Table 2–3: Infant Mortality Rate in the United States and Selected Countries, 2009 Estimates
    • Table 2–4: World Health Organization Rankings Data, 2000
    • Does the United States Have a Poorer Quality of Care Than Other Industrialized Nations? Should We Use Health Status Measures to Validate or Criticize Political Systems? Do These Statistics Truly Reflect the Relationship Between the Health Care System and the Population’s Health?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Causes of Death and Actual (Underlying) Causes of Death
    • Smoking and Health Status
    • Leading Causes of Death by Age
    • Table 2–5: Leading Causes of Death by Age
    • Other Factors Influencing Health Status
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Poverty and Health Status
    • Health Status and Race and Health Disparities
    • Vignette
    • Mental Illness
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 3: Health Services in Perspective

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Impact of Modern Medicine on Health
    • Figure 3–1: Medical service, medical care inflation compared to general inflation.
    • Are We Getting Enough “Value” Out of the Health Care Dollars That We Spend?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Diminishing Marginal Returns
    • Figure 3–2: Diminishing marginal returns.
    • Table 3–1: Chronic Disease: Current and Projected Burden, United States, 2003–2023
    • Figure 3–3: Projected percent of population with chronic condition, 1995–2030.
    • Increased Input Despite Decreased Output
    • Figure 3–4: Living and deceased donors: All organs, 2000 to 2009.
    • Figure 3–5: HIV death rates and introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
    • Why the Mixed Results of Modern Medicine?
    • Trends in Current Health Status
    • Table 3–2: Life Expectancy at Birth, and at 65 Years of Age, by Race and Sex: United States, Selected Years 1970–2007 [Data are based on death certificates]
    • Figure 3–6: Percent of population overweight and obese by age groups, 1960–2006.
    • Other Outcome Measures
    • Why Are Chronic Diseases Increasing?
    • Leading Causes of Death
    • Figure 3–7: Leading causes of death, 1900 and 1999.
    • Table 3–3: Deaths and Percentage of Total Deaths for the 10 Leading Causes of Death by Sex, United States, 2006
    • Table 3–4: Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Selected Causes of Death by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States, Selected Years 1950–2007 [Data are based on death certificates]
    • Modern Medicine’s Strategy Against the Diseases of Civilization (Largely a High-Tech Approach)
    • Vignette
    • Technical Response
    • Space Shot Mentality
    • Cure More Palatable Than Prevention
    • Inertia
    • Zero Sum Game
    • How Do We Deal with Disease?
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 4: Organization of Health Services

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Health Care System
    • Figure 4–1: Primary components of the health care system.
    • Social Components and the Roles They Play
    • Ownership of Health Care Organizations
    • Table 4–1: Percentage of Selective Health Care Organizations That Are For-Profit
    • Should For-Profit Organizations Be Allowed to Provide Care for Patients in the United States?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Government’s Role in Health Care
    • Ambulatory Care
    • Table 4–2: Types of Ambulatory Care Settings, Practitioners, and Level or Type of Service
    • Inpatient Health Care
    • Characteristics of Hospitals
    • Table 4–3: Hospitals by Size (Number of Beds) and Percentage of Hospitals, 2008
    • Table 4–4: Characteristics of Teaching Hospitals in the United States According to the Association of American Medical Colleges
    • Hospital Summary Facts
    • Long-Term Care
    • Vignette: DECIDING THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF CARE
    • Nursing Homes
    • Assisted Living
    • Home Health Care
    • Hospice Care
    • Table 4–5: Number of Medicare-Certified Hospices, 1984–2008
    • Physician Practice Arrangements
    • Types of Physician Practice Arrangements
    • Solo Practice Physicians
    • Group Practice
    • Figure 4–2: Distribution of medical groups and physicians in the United States.
    • Trends in Types of Practices
    • Figure 4–3: Percent of physicians by employment or office setting.
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 5: Health Manpower

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Physicians
    • The Rising Costs of the Health Care System
    • Vignette
    • Physician Training and Practice Requirements
    • Figure 5–1: Summary of steps to physician practice.
    • Medical School Applicants
    • Physician Training Economics
    • Should More Be Done to Alleviate Medical School financial Debt?
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • Cost of Training New Physicians
    • Medical Licensing
    • International Medical Graduates
    • Criteria for IMG Licensure
    • The Maldistribution of Physicians
    • Primary Care Practitioners
    • Figure 5–2: The shortage of primary care physicians and their distribution throughout the United States.
    • Practice Trends
    • Group Practice versus Solo Practice
    • Physician–Patient Communication
    • Medical Malpractice
    • Cost, Access, and Quality
    • Current State of Medical Liability Rates
    • Specialty Time Line
    • Physician Distribution and Supply
    • Maldistribution by Location
    • Future Surplus or Shortage of Physicians
    • Figure 5–3: Selected characteristics of the physician workforce.
    • Physician Income
    • Figure 5–4: Median physician compensation.*
    • Dentists
    • Dental Specialties
    • Education and Training
    • Licensure
    • The Future of Dentistry
    • Nurses
    • The Nursing Shortage
    • Figure 5–5: Registered nurse supply and demand projections.
    • Nurses and Hospital Quality
    • Figure 5–6: Registered nurse population by employment setting, 2008.*
    • Training for Nurses
    • Advanced Practice Nurses
    • Other Categories of Nursing Staff
    • Doctoral-Level Health Care Providers
    • Chiropractors
    • Podiatrists
    • Optometrists
    • Pharmacists
    • Other Members of the Health Care Workforce
    • Table 5–1: Non-Physician Practitioners and Expertise
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 6: Public Health

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • What Is Public Health?
    • Traditional Aspects of Public Health
    • Epidemiological Definitions
    • Figure 6–1: History of pandemics.
    • Levels of Public Health Prevention
    • Vignette: CHOOSING A CAREER IN PUBLIC HEALTH
    • Public Health Problems
    • Public Health versus Medical Care
    • Table 6–1: Traditional Difference between Public Health and Medical Care
    • Can Private Clinicians Provide Preventive Care as Well as Public Health Providers Do?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Evaluating Performance in Medical Care versus Public Health
    • What Justifies the Federal Government’s Involvement in Public Health?
    • The Government’s Role in Public Health
    • History of Public Health
    • Major Highlights of Public Health in America
    • Public Health Agencies
    • Figure 6–2: Agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 7: Long-Term Care

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • The Domain of Long-Term Care
    • Figure 7–1: Long-term care continuum.
    • Demographic and Epidemiologic Factors That Influence Demand for LTC
    • Institutional and Community-Based LTC Providers
    • Nursing Homes, or Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs)
    • Residential Care Facilities: Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs) or Personal Care Homes (PCHs) and Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs)
    • Rehabilitation Care
    • Home Health Agencies
    • Adult Day Care
    • Hospice Care
    • For-Profit Hospice Companies: Do They Focus on the Patient’s Best Interest?
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • Respite Care
    • Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly
    • Long-Term Care Case Management
    • Characteristics of LTC Recipients
    • Nursing Home Resident Characteristics
    • Characteristics of ALF and PCH Residents
    • The Regulatory Environment of LTC Facilites
    • SNF Regulations
    • ALF Regulations
    • Reimbursement Sources for LTC Services by Facility
    • SNF Reimbursements
    • Residential Care Homes: ALFs, PCHs, and CCRCs
    • Home Health Reimbursement
    • Hospice Care Reimbursement
    • Challenges for the LTC Industry
    • Vignette: WHEN THE GOLDEN YEARS ARE NOT SO GOLDEN
    • Vignette: END-OF-LIFE CARE
    • Mental Health in LTC
    • What Is Mental Health and Mental Illness?
    • Who are the Mentally Ill?
    • Mental Health Treatment
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 8: Medicare and Medicaid

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Why Is Medicare Important?
    • What Is Medicare?
    • Background on Medicare
    • Why Medicare Is Necessary
    • Should We Require That All Physicians Accept Medicare Patients and Medicare Payments?
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • Medicare Benefits and Structure
    • Medicare and Prescription Drugs
    • Figure 8–1: Standard Medicare prescription drug benefit, 2006.
    • Medicare Expenditures and Financing
    • Inpatient Hospital Care
    • Medicare Part B
    • Psychiatric Hospital Coverage
    • Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF)
    • Home Health
    • Hospice Care Services
    • Medicare Certified Facilities
    • Gaps in Medicare Coverage
    • Medicare Health Maintenance Organizations
    • Hospital Reimbursement
    • Physician Reimbursement
    • Vignette: MEGYN KELLY: THE CASE OF BENEFITS DENIED
    • Medicaid
    • Introduction and Organization of Medicaid
    • Medicaid’s Role in the Health Care System
    • Coverage of Health Services
    • Beneficiaries of Medicaid Coverage
    • Long-Term Care
    • Mental Health and Medicaid
    • Medicaid and Minors
    • Medicaid Costs and Managed Care
    • Welfare Reform and Medicaid
    • Distribution of Medicaid Coverage and Expenditures
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 9: Health Care Facilities

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Hospital Origins
    • Historical Development of Hospitals
    • Medical Breakthroughs Impact Hospitals
    • Hospital Types
    • General Acute Care General Hospitals
    • Teaching Hospitals
    • The Role of Teaching Hospitals
    • Reimbursement for Teaching Hospitals
    • Specialty Hospitals
    • Rehabilitative Hospitals
    • Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)
    • Critical Access Hospital Eligibility Requirements
    • Critical Access Hospital Reimbursement
    • Critical Access Hospital Benefits
    • Behavioral Hospitals
    • Physician-Owned Specialty Hospitals
    • Long-Term Care Hospitals
    • Long-Term Care Hospital Reimbursement
    • Hospital Organization
    • Hospital Closure
    • Hospital Economics
    • The Cost of Empty Beds
    • Impact of the Changing Economy on Hospitals
    • Uncompensated Care and Bad Debt
    • Reimbursement by Medicare and Medicaid
    • Community Hospitals
    • Hospitals and Their Feeder System
    • Trends in Health Care Facilities
    • Formation of Integrated Delivery Systems
    • Vertical Integration
    • Competitive Strategies of Hospitals
    • Inpatient Specialty Services
    • Outpatient Facilities
    • Hospital–Physician Joint Ventures
    • Hospital Specialized Services and Centers of Excellence
    • Hospital Diversification Strategies
    • Hospital Personnel
    • Should Robots Be Allowed to Provide Care and Support for Patients in Hospitals?
    • Background: Using Robots in Hospitals
    • Yes
    • Advantages of Robots in the Hospital
    • Robotic Surgery
    • No
    • Limitations of Robots in the Hospital
    • Limitations of Robots in Surgery
    • Hospitalists
    • Hospital Accreditation
    • History of Hospital Funding
    • Hill-Burton Act 1948
    • Funding Sources for Hospital Construction
    • Trends in Hospital Financing
    • Uncompensated Care
    • Advertising
    • Hospital Ownership Status
    • Hospital Performance
    • Ambulatory Surgical Centers
    • Growth in Ambulatory Surgical Centers
    • Technology in Ambulatory Surgical Centers
    • Services Provided by Ambulatory Surgical Centers
    • Competitive Advantages of Ambulatory Surgical Centers
    • Vignette: THE GEISINGER EXPERIENCE
    • I. Health Care Technology
    • II. Medical Home Initiative
    • III. Care Management of Chronic Conditions
    • IV. Reimbursement for Physicians
    • V. Acute Episodic Care Program
    • VI. Conclusion: Lessons Learned from the Geisigner Experience
    • Nursing Homes
    • Assisted Living Communities
    • Continuing Care Retirement Communities
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 10: Cost of Health Care Services

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • What Affects Health Expenditures?
    • Health Care Costs as a Portion of the Gross Domestic Product
    • Health Care Costs to Society
    • Global Health Care Costs
    • Figure 10–1: National health expenditures per capita, 1960–2009.
    • Figure 10–2: National health expenditures per capita, 1990–2019.
    • Figure 10–3: Per capita total current health care expenditures, United States and selected countries, 2008.
    • Reasons for Concern over Rising Expenditures and Costs for Health Care
    • Cost versus Access
    • Figure 10–4: Putting off care because of cost.
    • Cost versus Quality
    • Growth of the National Debt and Deficits
    • Significant Resources Spent on Delaying Death
    • The Effect of Health Care Expenditures on Business
    • Costs of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Affects International Trade
    • Employer Strategies to Decrease Health Care Fringe Benefit Costs
    • Figure 10–5: Distribution of health plan enrollment for covered workers, by plan type, 1988–2010.
    • Figure 10–6: Average annual worker and employer contributions to premiums and total premiums for family coverage, 1999–2010.
    • Rising Health Care Expenditures Are Affected by Medical Malpractice Suits
    • Vignette: PATIENT WITH HEADACHE RECEIVES MRI, CT, AND OTHER TESTS—IS THIS DEFENSIVE MEDICINE OR GOOD MEDICINE?
    • Background
    • The Scenario
    • Variation in Per Capita Health Expenditures
    • Should the United States Adopt a Medical Savings Account Plan?
    • Background: What Are Medical Savings Accounts?
    • Yes
    • Consumer Choice
    • Increased Access to Health Insurance
    • Administrative Cost Reduction
    • MSAs Encourage Informed Consumption of Services
    • MSA Tax Advantages
    • No
    • Fiscal Restrictions and Tax Disadvantages
    • MSAs and Preventive Health Care
    • MSAs Attract Only Healthy Consumers
    • MSAs Will Not Reduce Wasteful Health Care Spending
    • Reasons for Increased Demand Despite Prices Rising Sharply
    • Strategies to Deal with Cost
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 11: Health Care Financing

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Figure 11–1: Model for financing health services.
    • Developments in Health Care Financing
    • Health Care Spending Trends
    • Figure 11–2: Total health expenditure per capita and GDP per capita, United States and selected countries, 2008.
    • Figure 11–3: National health expenditures per capita, 1990–2018.
    • Cost-Shifting to Employees for Health Care Insurance
    • Federal Spending on Health Care and the Federal Debt
    • Increased Purchase of Private Health Insurance
    • Increase in Financing through Medicare and Medicaid
    • Health Insurance Trends
    • Classic Principles of Insurance
    • Out-of-Pocket Payments
    • Uninsured
    • Vignette: NECESSARY MEDICINE OR DEFENSIVE MEDICINE?
    • Should we insure the uninsured?
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • Employment Status
    • Reimbursement by Health Care Consumers
    • Direct Reimbursement
    • Third-Party Reimbursement
    • Community and Differential Ratings
    • Health Care Savings Accounts
    • Moral Hazard
    • Cost Shifting to Patients
    • Adverse Selection
    • Reimbursement Methods for Providers
    • reimbursement Models
    • Self-Pay
    • Retrospective Reimbursement
    • Fee-for-Service
    • Fee Schedule.
    • Discounted Fee-for-Service Schedule.
    • Customary, Prevailing, Reasonable (CPR).
    • Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS).
    • Reimbursement Based on Negotiated Rates
    • Capitation
    • Lump Sum Transfer
    • Salary
    • Share of Profits
    • Prospective Payment Model
    • Per Diem Prospective Payment
    • Case-Based Prospective Payment
    • Diagnosis-related groups (Drg).
    • Figure 11–4: Medicare prospective payment rate determination.
    • Summary and Implications of Our Financing Systems
    • Review Questions
    • Additional resources
    • References

CHAPTER 12: Managed Care

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Should Americans Be Required to Purchase Health Care Insurance?
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • History of Managed Care
    • The HMO Act of 1973
    • Essential Managed Care Terms
    • Basic Characteristics of an HMO
    • Common HMO Models
    • Staff Model
    • Group Model
    • Vignette: WHO DETERMINES MEDICAL NECESSITY?
    • Network Model
    • Independent Practice Association (IPA)
    • Other Types of Managed Care Models
    • Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)
    • Point-of-Service (POS) Plans
    • Managed Indemnity
    • Continuum of Managed Care
    • Figure 12–1: Continuum of managed care.
    • Other Health Care Delivery Organizations
    • Economic Concepts Important to Managed Care
    • Selected Empirical Evidence Concerning HMOs
    • Reputation of Managed Care
    • Table 12–1: Fee-For-Service versus Managed Care Characteristics
    • Selected Legislation Enacted in Response to Managed Care
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional resources
    • References

CHAPTER 13: Utilization of Health Services

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Characteristics of Utilization of Health Care Services
    • Factors Characterizing Utilization
    • Should Physicians Own Hospitals and Be Permitted to Refer Patients to Them—Will This Lead to Quality Care or Induced Demand?
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • Models Used to Predict Health Care Utilization
    • Rosenstock Model
    • Figure 13–1: The health belief model as predictor of preventive health behavior (Rosenstock’s model).
    • Andersen Model
    • Figure 13–2: Anderson’s model of health care utilization.
    • Figure 13–3: Individual determinants of health services utilization.
    • Trends in Societal Determinants (From Andersen’s Model)
    • Trends in Health Industry Characteristics (Andersen’s Model)
    • Figure 13–4: Cesarean delivery by race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 1993–2008.
    • Individual Determinants
    • Predisposing Factors
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Race
    • Education
    • Occupation
    • Religion
    • Health Beliefs and Health Education
    • Marital Status
    • Residence
    • Enabling Factors
    • Wealth
    • Insurance
    • Location
    • Physician Supply and Price
    • Need for Care and Illness Level
    • Vignette: RECOVERING ALCOHOLIC SEEKS LIVER TRANSPLANT
    • Overall Effect of Individual Determinants
    • General Trends in Utilization
    • Physician visits
    • Inpatient Surgical Procedures
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 14: Quality

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • What is Quality?
    • Reasons for Quality of Care Problems
    • Recent Health Care Reform Legislation to Promote Health Care Quality
    • Quality of Health Care as a Priority
    • Hospital-Acquired infections
    • Health Care Quality Assessment
    • Vignette: HOW DO WE DETERMINE CARE IS OF HIGH QUALITY?
    • Care Evaluation
    • Characterization of Quality Assessment Studies
    • Health Care Quality Assurance
    • History of Health Care Quality
    • Who Should Determine Health Care Quality—The Profession or a Government Oversight Body
    • Background
    • Yes
    • No
    • Approaches to Quality Assessment
    • Structure
    • Process
    • Outcomes
    • Quality Improvement Methods
    • Improving the Medical Education Process
    • Licensure/Specialty Certification
    • Continuing Medical Education (CME)
    • Accreditation/Facility Inspection
    • National Practitioner Data Bank
    • Professional Standard Review Organizations (PSRO)
    • Quality Improvement Organizations
    • State-Funded Health Care Quality Organizations
    • Pay-for-Performance
    • National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)
    • Recent Quality Improvement Efforts
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 15: Health Planning and Regulation

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • What Is Health Planning?
    • Micro versus Macro Planning
    • Relationships among Need, Demand, and Supply
    • Figure 15–1: Relationships among need, demand, and supply.
    • What Does Health Planning Involve?
    • Goals of Health Planning
    • What Is Regulation?
    • Rationale for Regulation
    • Competition versus Regulation
    • Benefits of Competition
    • Criteria for a Well-Functioning Free-Market System
    • Figure 15–2: The health care tug-of-war between competition and regulation.
    • Characteristics of the Health Care System That Make Regulation Desirable
    • Can Government Regulation Improve the Health Care Marketplace?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Theories That Explain Regulatory Behavior
    • Public Interest
    • Capture Theory
    • Economic Theory
    • History of Centralized Non-Governmental Health Planning
    • The Flexner Report (1910)
    • Committee on the Cost of Medical Care (1932)
    • Commission on Chronic Illness (1945)
    • Others
    • History of Centralized, Governmental Health Planning
    • The Dawson Report (1920)
    • The Social Security Act of 1935
    • Hospital Survey and Construction Act of 1946 (Hill-Burton Act/Program)
    • The Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke Act of 1965
    • Partnership for Health Act of 1966
    • National Health Planning and Resource Development Act of 1974
    • Vignette: HOW WELL DOES CERTIFICATE OF NEED OPERATE IN A FREE MARKET?
    • Summary
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

CHAPTER 16: National Health Policy

    • Learning Objectives
    • Key Terms
    • Introduction
    • Government Has Always Been Involved in the Provision or Financing of Health Services
    • History of National Health Policy
    • The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 2010
    • Health Care Reform by 2014
    • Benefits for the Uninsured
    • Benefits for Those with Preexisting Conditions
    • Should the United States Adopt National health Insurance?
    • Yes
    • No
    • Reasons for Interest in National Health Insurance
    • National Health Insurance—the Major Issues
    • The Constitution of the United States of America and Health Care
    • Historical Literalist View
    • Considerations Regarding National Health Insurance
    • Who Should Be Covered?
    • What Services Should Be Covered?
    • Vignette: HOW DO WE REDUCE COSTS DURING THE LAST SIX MONTHS OF LIFE?
    • Should Patients Share in Costs?
    • How Should the Plan Be Financed?
    • What Role Should Private Insurance Companies and State Governments Play?
    • What Role Should Consumers Have?
    • How Should Hospitals, Physicians, and Other Providers Be Reimbursed?
    • What Provisions Should Be Made for Quality Controls?
    • What Types of Delivery Forms Should Be Emphasized?
    • Summary—The Future
    • Review Questions
    • Additional Resources
    • References

Back Matter

  • Glossary of Key Terms
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Z
  • Index

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