### Table of content:

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

About this book xvi

About the author xx

About the cover xxi

Part 1 Fundamentals of deep learning 1

1 What is deep learning? 3

1.1 Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning 4

Artificial intelligence 4

Machine learning 4

Learning representations from data 6

The “deep” in deep learning 8

Understanding how deep learning works, in three figures 9

What deep learning has achieved so far 11

Don’t believe the short-term hype 12

The promise of AI 13

1.2 Before deep learning: a brief history of machine learning 14

Probabilistic modeling 14

Early neural networks 14

Kernel methods 15

Decision trees, random forests, and gradient boosting machines 16

Back to neural networks 17

What makes deep learning different 17

The modern machine-learning landscape 18

1.3 Why deep learning? Why now? 20

Hardware 20

Data 21

Algorithms 21

A new wave of investment 22

The democratization of deep learning 23

Will it last? 23

2 Before we begin: the mathematical building blocks of neural networks 25

2.1 A first look at a neural network 27

2.2 Data representations for neural networks 31

Scalars (0D tensors) 31

Vectors (1D tensors) 31

Matrices (2D tensors) 31

3D tensors and higher-dimensional tensors 32

Key attributes 32

Manipulating tensors in Numpy 34

The notion of data batches 34

Real-world examples of data tensors 35

Vector data 35

Timeseries data or sequence data 35

Image data 36

Video data 37

2.3 The gears of neural networks: tensor operations 38

Element-wise operations 38

Broadcasting 39

Tensor dot 40

Tensor reshaping 42

Geometric interpretation of tensor operations 43

A geometric interpretation of deep learning 44

2.4 The engine of neural networks: gradient-based optimization 46

What’s a derivative? 47

Derivative of a tensor operation: the gradient 48

Stochastic gradient descent 48

Chaining derivatives: the Backpropagation algorithm 51

2.5 Looking back at our first example 53

2.6 Chapter summary 55

3 Getting started with neural networks 56

3.1 Anatomy of a neural network 58

Layers: the building blocks of deep learning 58

Models: networks of layers 59

Loss functions and optimizers: keys to configuring the learning process 60

3.2 Introduction to Keras 61

Keras, TensorFlow, Theano, and CNTK 62

Developing with Keras: a quick overview 62

3.3 Setting up a deep-learning workstation 65

Jupyter notebooks: the preferred way to run deep-learning experiments 65

Getting Keras running: two options 66

Running deep-learning jobs in the cloud: pros and cons 66

What is the best GPU for deep learning? 66

3.4 Classifying movie reviews: a binary classification example 68

The IMDB dataset 68

Preparing the data 69

Building your network 70

Validating your approach 73

Using a trained network to generate predictions on new data 76

Further experiments 77

Wrapping up 77

3.5 Classifying newswires: a multiclass classification example 78

The Reuters dataset 78

Preparing the data 79

Building your network 79

Validating your approach 80

Generating predictions on new data 83

A different way to handle the labels and the loss 83

The importance of having sufficiently large intermediate layers 83

Further experiments 84

Wrapping up 84

3.6 Predicting house prices: a regression example 85

The Boston Housing Price dataset 85

Preparing the data 86

Building your network 86

Validating your approach using K-fold validation 87

Wrapping up 91

3.7 Chapter summary 92

4 Fundamentals of machine learning 93

4.1 Four branches of machine learning 94

Supervised learning 94

Unsupervised learning 94

Self-supervised learning 94

Reinforcement learning 95

4.2 Evaluating machine-learning models 97

Training validation, and test sets 97

Things to keep in mind 100

4.3 Data preprocessing, feature engineering, and feature learning 101

Data preprocessing for neural networks 101

Feature engineering 102

4.4 Overfitting and underfitting 104

Reducing the network’s size 104

Adding weight regularization 107

Adding dropout 109

4.5 The universal workflow of machine learning 111

Defining the problem and assembling a dataset 111

Choosing a measure of success 112

Deciding on an evaluation protocol 112

Preparing your data 112

Developing a model that does better than a baseline 113

Scaling up: developing a model that overfits 114

Regularizing your model and luning your hyperparameters 114

4.6 Chapter summary 116

Part 2 Deep Learning in Practice 117

5 Deep learning for computer vision 119

5.1 Introduction to convnets 120

The convolution operation 122

The max-pooling operation 127

5.2 Training a convnet from scratch on a small dataset 130

The relevance of deep learning for small-data problems 130

Downloading the data 131

Building your network 133

Data preprocessing 135

Using data augmentation 138

5.3 Using a pretrained convnet 143

Feature extraction 143

Fine-luning 152

Wrapping up 159

5.4 Visualizing what convnets learn 160

Visualizing intermediate activations 160

Visualizing convnet filters 167

Visualizing heatmaps of class activation 172

5.5 Chapter summary 177

6 Deep learning for text and sequences 178

6.1 Working with text data 180

One-hot encoding of words and characters 181

Using word embeddings 184

Putting it all together: from raw text to word embeddings 188

Wrapping up 195

6.2 Understanding recurrent neural networks 196

A recurrent layer in Keras 198

Understanding the LSTM and GRU layers 202

A concrete LSTM example in Keras 204

Wrapping up 206

6.3 Advanced use of recurrent neural networks 207

A temperature-forecasting problem 207

Preparing the data 210

A common-sense, non-machine-learning baseline 212

A basic machine-learning approach 213

A first recurrent baseline 215

Using recurrent dropout to fight overfitting 216

Stacking recurrent layers 217

Using bidirectional RNNs 219

Going even further 222

Wrapping up 223

6.4 Sequence processing with convnets 225

Understanding 1D convolution for sequence data 225

1D pooling for sequence data 226

Implementing a 1D convnet 226

Combining CNNs and RNNs to process long sequences 228

Wrapping up 231

6.5 Chapter summary 232

7 Advanced deep-learning best practices 233

7.1 Going beyond the Sequential model: the Keras functional API 234

Introduction to the functional API 236

Multi-input models 238

Multi-output models 240

Directed acyclic graphs of layers 242

Layer weight sharing 246

Models as layers 247

Wrapping up 248

7.2 Inspecting and monitoring deep-learning models using Keras callbacks and TensorBoard 249

Using callbacks to act on a model during training 249

Introduction to TensorBoard: the TensorFlow visualization framework 252

Wrapping up 259

7.3 Getting the most out of your models 260

Advanced architecture patterns 260

Hyperparameter optimization 263

Model ensembling 264

Wrapping up 266

7.4 Chapter summary 268

8 Generative deep learning 269

8.1 Text generation with LSTM 271

A brief history of generative recurrent networks 271

How do you generate sequence data? 272

The importance of the sampling strategy 272

Implementing character-level LSTM text generation 274

Wrapping up 279

8.2 DeepDream 280

Implementing DeepDream in Keras 281

Wrapping up 286

8.3 Neural style transfer 287

The content loss 288

The style loss 288

Neural style transfer in Keras 289

Wrapping up 295

8.4 Generating images with variational autoencoders 296

Sampling from latent spaces of images 296

Concept vectors for image editing 297

Variational autoencoders 298

Wrapping up 304

8.5 Introduction to generative adversarial networks 305

A schematic GAN implementation 307

A bag of tricks 307

The generator 308

The discriminator 309

The adversarial network 310

How to train your DCGAN 310

Wrapping up 312

8.6 Chapter summary 313

9 Conclusions 314

9.1 Key concepts in review 315

Various approaches to AI 315

What makes deep learning special within the field of machine learning 315

How to think about deep learning 316

Key enabling technologies 317

The universal machine-learning workflow 318

Key network architectures 319

The space of possibilities 322

9.2 The limitations of deep learning 325

The risk of anthropomorphizing machine-learning models 325

Local generalization vs. extreme generalization 327

Wrapping up 329

9.3 The future of deep learning 330

Models as programs 330

Beyond backpropagation and differentiable layers 332

Automated machine learning 332

Lifelong learning and modular subroutine reuse 333

The long-term vision 335

9.4 Staying up to date in a fast-moving field 337

Practice on real-world problems using Kaggle 337

Read about the latest developments on arXiv 337

Explore the Kerns ecosystem 338

9.5 Final words 339

Appendix A Installing Keras and its dependencies on Ubuntu 340

Appendix B Running Jupyter notebooks on an EC2 GPU instance 345

Index 35µµ

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