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Test Bank for Computer Networks and Internets (6th Edition) by Douglas E. Comer

By: Douglas E. Comer
ISBN-10: 0133587932
/ ISBN-13: 9780133587937

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Douglas E. Comer
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Table of contents:

Preface xxiii
PART I Introduction And Internet Applications
Chapter 1 Introduction And Overview 1
1.1 Growth Of Computer Networking 1
1.2 Why Networking Seems Complex 2
1.3 The Five Key Aspects Of Networking 2
1.4 Public And Private Parts Of The Internet 6
1.5 Networks, Interoperability, And Standards 8
1.6 Protocol Suites And Layering Models 9
1.7 How Data Passes Through Layers 11
1.8 Headers And Layers 12
1.9 ISO And The OSI Seven Layer Reference Model 13
1.10 Remainder Of The Text 14
1.11 Summary 14
Chapter 2 Internet Trends 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Resource Sharing 17
2.3 Growth Of The Internet 18
2.4 From Resource Sharing To Communication 21
2.5 From Text To Multimedia 21
2.6 Recent Trends 22
2.7 From Individual Computers To Cloud Computing 23
2.8 Summary 24
Chapter 3 Internet Applications And Network Programming 27
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Two Basic Internet Communication Paradigms 28
3.3 Connection-Oriented Communication 29
3.4 The Client-Server Model Of Interaction 30
3.5 Characteristics Of Clients And Servers 31
3.6 Server Programs And Server-Class Computers 31
3.7 Requests, Responses, And Direction Of Data Flow 32
3.8 Multiple Clients And Multiple Servers 32
3.9 Server Identification And Demultiplexing 33
3.10 Concurrent Servers 34
3.11 Circular Dependencies Among Servers 35
3.12 Peer-To-Peer Interactions 35
3.13 Network Programming And The Socket API 36
3.14 Sockets, Descriptors, And Network I/O 36
3.15 Parameters And The Socket API 37
3.16 Socket Calls In A Client And Server 38
3.17 Socket Functions Used By Both Client And Server 38
3.18 The Connect Function Used Only By A Client 40
3.19 Socket Functions Used Only By A Server 40
3.20 Socket Functions Used With The Message Paradigm 43
3.21 Other Socket Functions 44
3.22 Sockets, Threads, And Inheritance 45
3.23 Summary 45
Chapter 4 Traditional Internet Applications 49
4.1 Introduction 49
4.2 Application-Layer Protocols 49
4.3 Representation And Transfer 50
4.4 Web Protocols 51
4.5 Document Representation With HTML 52
4.6 Uniform Resource Locators And Hyperlinks 54
4.7 Web Document Transfer With HTTP 55
4.8 Caching In Browsers 57
4.9 Browser Architecture 59
4.10 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 59
4.11 FTP Communication Paradigm 60
4.12 Electronic Mail 63
4.13 The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 64
4.14 ISPs, Mail Servers, And Mail Access 66
4.15 Mail Access Protocols (POP, IMAP) 67
4.16 Email Representation Standards (RFC2822, MIME) 67
4.17 Domain Name System (DNS) 69
4.18 Domain Names That Begin With A Service Name 71
4.19 The DNS Hierarchy And Server Model 72
4.20 Name Resolution 72
4.21 Caching In DNS Servers 74
4.22 Types Of DNS Entries 75
4.23 Aliases And CNAME Resource Records 76
4.24 Abbreviations And The DNS 76
4.25 Internationalized Domain Names 77
4.26 Extensible Representations (XML) 78
4.27 Summary 79
PART II Data Communication Basics
Chapter 5 Overview Of Data Communications 85
5.1 Introduction 85
5.2 The Essence Of Data Communications 86
5.3 Motivation And Scope Of The Subject 87
5.4 The Conceptual Pieces Of A Communications System 87
5.5 The Subtopics Of Data Communications 90
5.6 Summary 91
Chapter 6 Information Sources And Signals 93
6.1 Introduction 93
6.2 Information Sources 93
6.3 Analog And Digital Signals 94
6.4 Periodic And Aperiodic Signals 94
6.5 Sine Waves And Signal Characteristics 95
6.6 Composite Signals 97
6.7 The Importance Of Composite Signals And Sine Functions 97
6.8 Time And Frequency Domain Representations 98
6.9 Bandwidth Of An Analog Signal 99
6.10 Digital Signals And Signal Levels 100
6.11 Baud And Bits Per Second 101
6.12 Converting A Digital Signal To Analog 102
6.13 The Bandwidth Of A Digital Signal 103
6.14 Synchronization And Agreement About Signals 103
6.15 Line Coding 104
6.16 Manchester Encoding Used In Computer Networks 106
6.17 Converting An Analog Signal To Digital 107
6.18 The Nyquist Theorem And Sampling Rate 108
6.19 Nyquist Theorem And Telephone System Transmission 108
6.20 Nonlinear Encoding 109
6.21 Encoding And Data Compression 109
6.22 Summary 110
Chapter 7 Transmission Media 113
7.1 Introduction 113
7.2 Guided And Unguided Transmission 113
7.3 A Taxonomy By Forms Of Energy 114
7.4 Background Radiation And Electrical Noise 115
7.5 Twisted Pair Copper Wiring 115
7.6 Shielding: Coaxial Cable And Shielded Twisted Pair 117
7.7 Categories Of Twisted Pair Cable 118
7.8 Media Using Light Energy And Optical Fibers 119
7.9 Types Of Fiber And Light Transmission 120
7.10 Optical Fiber Compared To Copper Wiring 121
7.11 Infrared Communication Technologies 122
7.12 Point-To-Point Laser Communication 122
7.13 Electromagnetic (Radio) Communication 123
7.14 Signal Propagation 124
7.15 Types Of Satellites 125
7.16 Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) Satellites 126
7.17 GEO Coverage Of The Earth 127
7.18 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites And Clusters 128
7.19 Tradeoffs Among Media Types 128
7.20 Measuring Transmission Media 129
7.21 The Effect Of Noise On Communication 129
7.22 The Significance Of Channel Capacity 130
7.23 Summary 131
Chapter 8 Reliability And Channel Coding 135
8.1 Introduction 135
8.2 The Three Main Sources Of Transmission Errors 135
8.3 Effect Of Transmission Errors On Data 136
8.4 Two Strategies For Handling Channel Errors 137
8.5 Block And Convolutional Error Codes 138
8.6 An Example Block Error Code: Single Parity Checking 139
8.7 The Mathematics Of Block Error Codes And (n,k) Notation 140
8.8 Hamming Distance: A Measure Of A Code’s Strength 140
8.9 The Hamming Distance Among Strings In A Codebook 141
8.10 The Tradeoff Between Error Detection And Overhead 142
8.11 Error Correction With Row And Column (RAC) Parity 142
8.12 The 16-Bit Checksum Used In The Internet 144
8.13 Cyclic Redundancy Codes (CRCs) 145
8.14 An Efficient Hardware Implementation Of CRC 148
8.15 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Mechanisms 148
8.16 Summary 149
Chapter 9 Transmission Modes 153
9.1 Introduction 153
9.2 A Taxonomy Of Transmission Modes 153
9.3 Parallel Transmission 154
9.4 Serial Transmission 155
9.5 Transmission Order: Bits And Bytes 156
9.6 Timing Of Serial Transmission 156
9.7 Asynchronous Transmission 157
9.8 RS-232 Asynchronous Character Transmission 157
9.9 Synchronous Transmission 158
9.10 Bytes, Blocks, And Frames 159
9.11 Isochronous Transmission 160
9.12 Simplex, Half-Duplex, And Full-Duplex Transmission 160
9.13 DCE And DTE Equipment 162
9.14 Summary 162
Chapter 10 Modulation And Modems 165
10.1 Introduction 165
10.2 Carriers, Frequency, And Propagation 165
10.3 Analog Modulation Schemes 166
10.4 Amplitude Modulation 166
10.5 Frequency Modulation 167
10.6 Phase Shift Modulation 168
10.7 Amplitude Modulation And Shannon’s Theorem 168
10.8 Modulation, Digital Input, And Shift Keying 168
10.9 Phase Shift Keying 169
10.10 Phase Shift And A Constellation Diagram 171
10.11 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 173
10.12 Modem Hardware For Modulation And Demodulation 174
10.13 Optical And Radio Frequency Modems 174
10.14 Dialup Modems 175
10.15 QAM Applied To Dialup 175
10.16 V.32 And V.32bis Dialup Modems 176
10.17 Summary 177
Chapter 11 Multiplexing And Demultiplexing (Channelization) 181
11.1 Introduction 181
11.2 The Concept Of Multiplexing 181
11.3 The Basic Types Of Multiplexing 182
11.4 Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) 183
11.5 Using A Range Of Frequencies Per Channel 185
11.6 Hierarchical FDM 186
11.7 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) 187
11.8 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) 187
11.9 Synchronous TDM 188
11.10 Framing Used In The Telephone System Version Of TDM 189
11.11 Hierarchical TDM 190
11.12 The Problem With Synchronous TDM: Unfilled Slots 190
11.13 Statistical TDM 191
11.14 Inverse Multiplexing 192
11.15 Code Division Multiplexing 193
11.16 Summary 195
Chapter 12 Access And Interconnection Technologies 199
12.1 Introduction 199
12.2 Internet Access Technology: Upstream And Downstream 199
12.3 Narrowband And Broadband Access Technologies 200
12.4 The Local Loop And ISDN 202
12.5 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Technologies 202
12.6 Local Loop Characteristics And Adaptation 203
12.7 The Data Rate Of ADSL 204
12.8 ADSL Installation And Splitters 205
12.9 Cable Modem Technologies 205
12.10 The Data Rate Of Cable Modems 206
12.11 Cable Modem Installation 206
12.12 Hybrid Fiber Coax 207
12.13 Access Technologies That Employ Optical Fiber 208
12.14 Head-End And Tail-End Modem Terminology 208
12.15 Wireless Access Technologies 209
12.16 High-Capacity Connections At The Internet Core 209
12.17 Circuit Termination, DSU/ CSU, And NIU 210
12.18 Telephone Standards For Digital Circuits 211
12.19 DS Terminology And Data Rates 212
12.20 Highest Capacity Circuits (STS Standards) 212
12.21 Optical Carrier Standards 213
12.22 The C Suffix 213
12.23 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) 214
12.24 Summary 215
PART III Packet Switching And Network Technologies
Chapter 13 Local Area Networks: Packets, Frames, And Topologies 219
13.1 Introduction 219
13.2 Circuit Switching And Analog Communication 220
13.3 Packet Switching 221
13.4 Local And Wide Area Packet Networks 222
13.5 Standards For Packet Format And Identification 223
13.6 IEEE 802 Model And Standards 224
13.7 Point-To-Point And Multi-Access Networks 225
13.8 LAN Topologies 227
13.9 Packet Identification, Demultiplexing, MAC Addresses 229
13.10 Unicast, Broadcast, And Multicast Addresses 230
13.11 Broadcast, Multicast, And Efficient Multi-Point Delivery 231
13.12 Frames And Framing 232
13.13 Byte And Bit Stuffing 233
13.14 Summary 234
Chapter 14 The IEEE MAC Sublayer 239
14.1 Introduction 239
14.2 A Taxonomy Of Mechanisms For Shared Access 239
14.3 Static And Dynamic Channel Allocation 240
14.4 Channelization Protocols 241
14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 242
14.6 Random Access Protocols 244
14.7 Summary 250
Chapter 15 Wired LAN Technology (Ethernet And 802.3) 253
15.1 Introduction 253
15.2 The Venerable Ethernet 253
15.3 Ethernet Frame Format 254
15.4 Ethernet Frame Type Field And Demultiplexing 254
15.5 IEEE’s Version Of Ethernet (802.3) 255
15.6 LAN Connections And Network Interface Cards 256
15.7 Ethernet Evolution And Thicknet Wiring 256
15.8 Thinnet Ethernet Wiring 257
15.9 Twisted Pair Ethernet Wiring And Hubs 258
15.10 Physical And Logical Ethernet Topology 259
15.11 Wiring In An Office Building 259
15.12 Ethernet Data Rates And Cable Types 261
15.13 Twisted Pair Connectors And Cables 261
15.14 Summary 262
Chapter 16 Wireless Networking Technologies 265
16.1 Introduction 265
16.2 A Taxonomy Of Wireless Networks 265
16.3 Personal Area Networks (PANs) 266
16.4 ISM Wireless Bands Used By LANs And PANs 267
16.5 Wireless LAN Technologies And Wi-Fi 267
16.6 Spread Spectrum Techniques 268
16.7 Other Wireless LAN Standards 269
16.8 Wireless LAN Architecture 270
16.9 Overlap, Association, And 802.11 Frame Format 271
16.10 Coordination Among Access Points 272
16.11 Contention And Contention-Free Access 272
16.12 Wireless MAN Technology And WiMax 274
16.13 PAN Technologies And Standards 276
16.14 Other Short-Distance Communication Technologies 277
16.15 Wireless WAN Technologies 278
16.16 Micro Cells 280
16.17 Cell Clusters And Frequency Reuse 280
16.18 Generations Of Cellular Technologies 282
16.19 VSAT Satellite Technology 284
16.20 GPS Satellites 285
16.21 Software Defined Radio And The Future Of Wireless 286
16.22 Summary 287
Chapter 17 Repeaters, Bridges, And Switches 291
17.1 Introduction 291
17.2 Distance Limitation And LAN Design 291
17.3 Fiber Modem Extensions 292
17.4 Repeaters 293
17.5 Bridges And Bridging 293
17.6 Learning Bridges And Frame Filtering 294
17.7 Why Bridging Works Well 295
17.8 Distributed Spanning Tree 296
17.9 Switching And Layer 2 Switches 297
17.10 VLAN Switches 299
17.11 Multiple Switches And Shared VLANs 300
17.12 The Importance Of Bridging 301
17.13 Summary 302
Chapter 18 WAN Technologies And Dynamic Routing 305
18.1 Introduction 305
18.2 Large Spans And Wide Area Networks 305
18.3 Traditional WAN Architecture 306
18.4 Forming A WAN 308
18.5 Store And Forward Paradigm 309
18.6 Addressing In A WAN 309
18.7 Next-Hop Forwarding 310
18.8 Source Independence 313
18.9 Dynamic Routing Updates In A WAN 313
18.10 Default Routes 314
18.11 Forwarding Table Computation 315
18.12 Distributed Route Computation 316
18.13 Shortest Paths And Weights 320
18.14 Routing Problems 321
18.15 Summary 322
Chapter 19 Networking Technologies Past And Present 325
19.1 Introduction 325
19.2 Connection And Access Technologies 325
19.3 LAN Technologies 327
19.4 WAN Technologies 328
19.5 Summary 332
PART IV Internetworking
Chapter 20 Internetworking: Concepts, Architecture, And Protocols 335
20.1 Introduction 335
20.2 The Motivation For Internetworking 335
20.3 The Concept Of Universal Service 336
20.4 Universal Service In A Heterogeneous World 336
20.5 Internetworking 337
20.6 Physical Network Connection With Routers 337
20.7 Internet Architecture 338
20.8 Intranets And Internets 339
20.9 Achieving Universal Service 339
20.10 A Virtual Network 339
20.11 Protocols For Internetworking 341
20.12 Review Of TCP/IP Layering 341
20.13 Host Computers, Routers, And Protocol Layers 342
20.14 Summary 342
Chapter 21 IP: Internet Addressing 345
21.1 Introduction 345
21.2 The Move To IPv6 345
21.3 The Hourglass Model And Difficulty Of Change 346
21.4 Addresses For The Virtual Internet 346
21.5 The IP Addressing Scheme 348
21.6 The IP Address Hierarchy 348
21.7 Original Classes Of IPv4 Addresses 349
21.8 IPv4 Dotted Decimal Notation 350
21.9 Authority For Addresses 351
21.10 IPv4 Subnet And Classless Addressing 351
21.11 Address Masks 353
21.12 CIDR Notation Used With IPv4 354
21.13 A CIDR Example 354
21.14 CIDR Host Addresses 356
21.15 Special IPv4 Addresses 357
21.16 Summary Of Special IPv4 Addresses 359
21.17 IPv4 Berkeley Broadcast Address Form 359
21.18 Routers And The IPv4 Addressing Principle 360
21.19 Multihomed Hosts 361
21.20 IPv6 Multihoming And Network Renumbering 361
21.21 IPv6 Addressing 362
21.22 IPv6 Colon Hexadecimal Notation 363
21.23 Summary 364
Chapter 22 Datagram Forwarding 369
22.1 Introduction 369
22.2 Connectionless Service 369
22.3 Virtual Packets 370
22.4 The IP Datagram 370
22.5 The IPv4 Datagram Header Format 371
22.6 The IPv6 Datagram Header Format 373
22.7 IPv6 Base Header Format 373
22.8 Forwarding An IP Datagram 375
22.9 Network Prefix Extraction And Datagram Forwarding 376
22.10 Longest Prefix Match 377
22.11 Destination Address And Next-Hop Address 378
22.12 Best-Effort Delivery 378
22.13 IP Encapsulation 379
22.14 Transmission Across An Internet 380
22.15 MTU And Datagram Fragmentation 381
22.16 Fragmentation Of An IPv6 Datagram 383
22.17 Reassembly Of An IP Datagram From Fragments 384
22.18 Collecting The Fragments Of A Datagram 385
22.19 The Consequence Of Fragment Loss 386
22.20 Fragmenting An IPv4 Fragment 386
22.21 Summary 387
Chapter 23 Support Protocols And Technologies 391
23.1 Introduction 391
23.2 Address Resolution 391
23.3 An Example Of IPv4 Addresses 393
23.4 The IPv4 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 393
23.5 ARP Message Format 394
23.6 ARP Encapsulation 395
23.7 ARP Caching And Message Processing 396
23.8 The Conceptual Address Boundary 398
23.9 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 399
23.10 ICMP Message Format And Encapsulation 400
23.11 IPv6 Address Binding With Neighbor Discovery 401
23.12 Protocol Software, Parameters, And Configuration 401
23.13 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 402
23.14 DHCP Protocol Operation And Optimizations 403
23.15 DHCP Message Format 404
23.16 Indirect DHCP Server Access Through A Relay 405
23.17 IPv6 Autoconfiguration 405
23.18 Network Address Translation (NAT) 406
23.19 NAT Operation And IPv4 Private Addresses 407
23.20 Transport-Layer NAT (NAPT) 409
23.21 NAT And Servers 410
23.22 NAT Software And Systems For Use At Home 410
23.23 Summary 411
Chapter 24 UDP: Datagram Transport Service 415
24.1 Introduction 415
24.2 Transport Protocols And End-To-End Communication 415
24.3 The User Datagram Protocol 416
24.4 The Connectionless Paradigm 417
24.5 Message-Oriented Interface 417
24.6 UDP Communication Semantics 418
24.7 Modes Of Interaction And Multicast Delivery 419
24.8 Endpoint Identification With Protocol Port Numbers 419
24.9 UDP Datagram Format 420
24.10 The UDP Checksum And The Pseudo Header 421
24.11 UDP Encapsulation 421
24.12 Summary 422
Chapter 25 TCP: Reliable Transport Service 425
25.1 Introduction 425
25.2 The Transmission Control Protocol 425
25.3 The Service TCP Provides To Applications 426
25.4 End-To-End Service And Virtual Connections 427
25.5 Techniques That Transport Protocols Use 428
25.6 Techniques To Avoid Congestion 432
25.7 The Art Of Protocol Design 433
25.8 Techniques Used In TCP To Handle Packet Loss 434
25.9 Adaptive Retransmission 435
25.10 Comparison Of Retransmission Times 436
25.11 Buffers, Flow Control, And Windows 437
25.12 TCP’s Three-Way Handshake 438
25.13 TCP Congestion Control 440
25.14 Versions Of TCP Congestion Control 441
25.15 Other Variations: SACK And ECN 441
25.16 TCP Segment Format 442
25.17 Summary 443
Chapter 26 Internet Routing And Routing Protocols 447
26.1 Introduction 447
26.2 Static Vs. Dynamic Routing 447
26.3 Static Routing In Hosts And A Default Route 448
26.4 Dynamic Routing And Routers 449
26.5 Routing In The Global Internet 450
26.6 Autonomous System Concept 451
26.7 The Two Types Of Internet Routing Protocols 451
26.8 Routes And Data Traffic 454
26.9 The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 454
26.10 The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 456
26.11 RIP Packet Format 457
26.12 The Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF) 458
26.13 An Example OSPF Graph 459
26.14 OSPF Areas 459
26.15 Intermediate System – Intermediate System (IS-IS) 460
26.16 Multicast Routing 461
26.17 Summary 465
PART V Other Networking Concepts & Technologies
Chapter 27 Network Performance (QoS And DiffServ) 469
27.1 Introduction 469
27.2 Measures Of Performance 469
27.3 Latency Or Delay 470
27.4 Capacity, Throughput, And Goodput 472
27.5 Understanding Throughput And Delay 473
27.6 Jitter 474
27.7 The Relationship Between Delay And Throughput 475
27.8 Measuring Delay, Throughput, And Jitter 476
27.9 Passive Measurement, Small Packets, And NetFlow 478
27.10 Quality Of Service (QoS) 479
27.11 Fine-Grain And Coarse-Grain QoS 480
27.12 Implementation Of QoS 482
27.13 Internet QoS Technologies 484
27.14 Summary 485
Chapter 28 Multimedia And IP Telephony (VoIP) 489
28.1 Introduction 489
28.2 Real-Time Data Transmission And Best-Effort Delivery 489
28.3 Delayed Playback And Jitter Buffers 490
28.4 Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) 491
28.5 RTP Encapsulation 492
28.6 IP Telephony 493
28.7 Signaling And VoIP Signaling Standards 494
28.8 Components Of An IP Telephone System 495
28.9 Summary Of Protocols And Layering 498
28.10 H.323 Characteristics 499
28.11 H.323 Layering 499
28.12 SIP Characteristics And Methods 500
28.13 An Example SIP Session 501
28.14 Telephone Number Mapping And Routing 502
28.15 Summary 503
Chapter 29 Network Security 507
29.1 Introduction 507
29.2 Criminal Exploits And Attacks 507
29.3 Security Policy 511
29.4 Responsibility And Control 512
29.5 Security Technologies 513
29.6 Hashing: An Integrity And Authentication Mechanism 513
29.7 Access Control And Passwords 514
29.8 Encryption: A Fundamental Security Technique 514
29.9 Private Key Encryption 515
29.10 Public Key Encryption 515
29.11 Authentication With Digital Signatures 516
29.12 Key Authorities And Digital Certificates 517
29.13 Firewalls 519
29.14 Firewall Implementation With A Packet Filter 520
29.15 Intrusion Detection Systems 522
29.16 Content Scanning And Deep Packet Inspection 522
29.17 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) 523
29.18 The Use of VPN Technology For Telecommuting 525
29.19 Packet Encryption Vs. Tunneling 526
29.20 Security Technologies 528
29.21 Summary 529
Chapter 30 Network Management (SNMP) 533
30.1 Introduction 533
30.2 Managing An Intranet 533
30.3 FCAPS: The Industry Standard Model 534
30.4 Example Network Elements 536
30.5 Network Management Tools 536
30.6 Network Management Applications 538
30.7 Simple Network Management Protocol 539
30.8 SNMP’s Fetch-Store Paradigm 539
30.9 The SNMP MIB And Object Names 540
30.10 The Variety Of MIB Variables 541
30.11 MIB Variables That Correspond To Arrays 541
30.12 Summary 542
Chapter 31 Software Defined Networking (SDN) 545
31.1 Introduction 545
31.2 Marketing Hype And Reality 545
31.3 Motivation For A New Approach 546
31.4 Conceptual Organization Of A Network Element 548
31.5 Control Plane Modules And The Hardware Interface 549
31.6 A New Paradigm: Software Defined Networking 550
31.7 Unanswered Questions 551
31.8 Shared Controllers And Network Connections 552
31.9 SDN Communication 553
31.10 OpenFlow: A Controller-To-Element Protocol 554
31.11 Classification Engines In Switches 555
31.12 TCAM And High-Speed Classification 556
31.13 Classification Across Multiple Protocol Layers 557
31.14 TCAM Size And The Need For Multiple Patterns 557
31.15 Items OpenFlow Can Specify 558
31.16 Traditional And Extended IP Forwarding 559
31.17 End-To-End Path With MPLS Using Layer 2 560
31.18 Dynamic Rule Creation And Control Of Flows 561
31.19 A Pipeline Model For Flow Tables 562
31.20 SDN’s Potential Effect On Network Vendors 563
31.21 Summary 564
Chapter 32 The Internet Of Things 567
32.1 Introduction 567
32.2 Embedded Systems 567
32.3 Choosing A Network Technology 569
32.4 Energy Harvesting 570
32.5 Low Power Wireless Communication 570
32.6 Mesh Topology 571
32.7 The ZigBee Alliance 571
32.8 802.15.4 Radios And Wireless Mesh Networks 572
32.9 Internet Connectivity And Mesh Routing 573
32.10 IPv6 In A ZigBee Mesh Network 574
32.11 The ZigBee Forwarding Paradigm 575
32.12 Other Protocols In the ZigBee Stack 576
32.13 Summary 577
Chapter 33 Trends In Networking Technologies And Uses 579
33.1 Introduction 579
33.2 The Need For Scalable Internet Services 579
33.3 Content Caching (Akamai) 580
33.4 Web Load Balancers 580
33.5 Server Virtualization 581
33.6 Peer-To-Peer Communication 581
33.7 Distributed Data Centers And Replication 582
33.8 Universal Representation (XML) 582
33.9 Social Networking 583
33.10 Mobility And Wireless Networking 583
33.11 Digital Video 583
33.12 Higher-Speed Access And Switching 584
33.13 Cloud Computing 584
33.14 Overlay Networks 584
33.15 Middleware 586
33.16 Widespread Deployment Of IPv6 586
33.17 Summary 587
Appendix 1 A Simplified Application Programming Interface 589
Index 617


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