Test Bank for Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and Experiments,7th Edition

Test Bank for Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and Experiments, 7th Edition


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Downloadable Test Bank for Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and Experiments,7th Edition



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Product Description

Title:  Cell and Molecular Biology

Edition: 7th Edition

Author(s): Gerald Karp


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Table of content

1 Introduction to the Study of Cell and Molecular Biology 1 1.1 The Discovery of Cells 2 1.2 Basic Properties of Cells 3 1.3 Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells 7 1.4 Viruses 23 2 The Chemical Basis of Life 32 2.1 Covalent Bonds 33 2.2 Noncovalent Bonds 34 2.3 Acids, Bases, and Buffers 39 2.4 The Nature of Biological Molecules 40 2.5 Four Types of Biological Molecules 42 2.6 The Formation of Complex Macromolecular Structures 79 3 Bioenergetics,Enzymes, and Metabolism 86 3.1 Bioenergetics 87 3.2 Enzymes as Biological Catalysts 94 3.3 Metabolism 108 4 The Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane 120 4.1 An Overview of Membrane Functions 121 4.2 A Brief History of Studies on Plasma Membrane Structure 123 4.3 The Chemical Composition of Membranes 125 4.4 The Structure and Functions of Membrane Proteins 130 4.5 Membrane Lipids and Membrane Fluidity 138 4.6 The Dynamic Nature of the Plasma Membrane 140 4.7 The Movement of Substances Across Cell Membranes 147 4.8 Membrane Potentials and Nerve Impulses 164 5 Aerobic Respiration and the Mitochondrion 178 5.1 Mitochondrial Structure and Function 179 5.2 Oxidative Metabolism in the Mitochondrion 183 5.3 The Role of Mitochondria in the Formation of ATP 189 5.4 Translocation of Protons and the Establishment of a Proton-Motive Force 198 5.5 The Machinery for ATP Formation 199 5.6 Peroxisomes 206 6 Photosynthesis and the Chloroplast 211 6.1 Chloroplast Structure and Function 213 6.2 An Overview of Photosynthetic Metabolism 214 6.3 The Absorption of Light 216 6.4 Photosynthetic Units and Reaction Centers 218 6.5 Photophosphorylation 225 6.6 Carbon Dioxide Fixation and the Synthesis of Carbohydrate 226 7 Interactions Between Cells and Their Environment 235 7.1 The Extracellular Space 236 7.2 Interactions of Cells with Extracellular Materials 244 7.3 Interactions of Cells with Other Cells 250 7.4 Tight Junctions: Sealing The Extracellular Space 260 7.5 Gap Junctions and Plasmodesmata: Mediating Intercellular Communication 262 Plasmodesmata 265 7.6 Cell Walls 266 8 Cytoplasmic Membrane Systems: Structure, Function, and Membrane Trafficking 270 8.1 An Overview of the Endomembrane System 271 8.2 A Few Approaches to the Study of Endomembranes 273 8.3 The Endoplasmic Reticulum 279 8.4 The Golgi Complex 290 8.5 Types of Vesicle Transport and Their Functions 295 8.6 Lysosomes 303 8.7 Plant Cell Vacuoles 307 8.8 The Endocytic Pathway: Moving Membrane and Materials into the Cell Interior 308 8.9 Posttranslational Uptake of Proteins by Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts 316 9 The Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility 324 9.1 Overview of the Major Functions of the Cytoskeleton 325 9.2 The Study of the Cytoskeleton 326 9.3 Microtubules 330 9.4 Intermediate Filaments 354 9.5 Microfilaments 356 9.6 Muscle Contractility 364 9.7 Nonmuscle Motility 371 10 The Nature of the Gene and the Genome 386 10.1 The Concept of a Gene as a Unit of Inheritance 387 10.2 Chromosomes: The Physical Carriers of the Genes 388 10.3 The Chemical Nature of the Gene 393 10.4 The Structure of the Genome 398 10.5 The Stability of the Genome 406 10.6 Sequencing Genomes: The Footprints of Biological Evolution 411 11 Gene Expression: From Transcription to Translation 426 11.1 The Relationship between Genes, Proteins, and RNAs 427 11.2 An Overview of Transcription in Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 429 11.3 Synthesis and Processing of Eukaryotic Ribosomal and Transfer RNAs 435 11.4 Synthesis and Processing of Eukaryotic Messenger RNAs 441 11.5 Small Regulatory RNAs and RNA Silencing Pathways 455 11.6 Encoding Genetic Information 461 11.7 Decoding the Codons: The Role of Transfer RNAs 464 11.8 Translating Genetic Information 468 12 Control of Gene Expression 483 12.1 Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria 484 12.2 Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes: Structure and Function of the Cell Nucleus 488 12.3 An Overview of Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes 512 12.4 Transcriptional Control 514 12.5 RNA Processing Control 533 12.6 Translational Control 536 12.7 Posttranslational Control: Determining Protein Stability 541 13 DNA Replication and Repair 545 13.1 DNA Replication 546 13.2 DNA Repair 564 13.3 Between Replication and Repair 568 14 Cellular Reproduction 572 14.1 The Cell Cycle 573 14.2 M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 581 14.3 Meiosis 602 15 Cell Signaling and Signal Transduction: Communication Between Cells 617 15.1 The Basic Elements of Cell Signaling Systems 618 15.2 A Survey of Extracellular Messengers and Their Receptors 621 15.3 G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Second Messengers 621 15.4 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation as a Mechanism for Signal Transduction 636 15.5 The Role of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger 648 15.6 Convergence, Divergence, and Cross-Talk Among Different Signaling Pathways 653 15.7 The Role of NO as an Intercellular Messenger 655 15.8 Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) 656 16 Cancer 664 16.1 Basic Properties of a Cancer Cell 665 16.2 The Causes of Cancer 667 16.3 The Genetics of Cancer 669 16.4 New Strategies for Combating Cancer 687 17 The Immune Response 699 17.1 An Overview of the Immune Response 700 17.2 The Clonal Selection Theory as It Applies to B Cells 704 17.3 T Lymphocytes: Activation and Mechanism of Action 707 17.4 Selected Topics on the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Immunity 710 18 Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology 732 18.1 The Light Microscope 733 18.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy 740 18.3 Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopy 746 18.4 The Use of Radioisotopes 748 18.5 Cell Culture 749 18.6 The Fractionation of a Cell?s Contents by Differential Centrifugation 752 18.7 Isolation, Purification, and Fractionation of Proteins 752 18.8 Determining the Structure of Proteins and Multisubunit Complexes 758 18.9 Fractionation of Nucleic Acids 760 18.10 Nucleic Acid Hybridization 762 18.11 Chemical Synthesis of DNA 764 18.12 Recombinant DNA Technology 764 18.13 Enzymatic Amplification of DNA by PCR 769 18.14 DNA Sequencing 771 18.15 DNA Libraries 773 18.16 DNA Transfer into Eukaryotic Cells and Mammalian Embryos 775 18.17 Determining Eukaryotic Gene Function by Gene Elimination or Silencing 778 18.18 The Use of Antibodies 780 Glossary G-1 Additional Readings A-1 Index I-1