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Test Bank for Biology: Concepts and Applications, (10th Edition) by Cecie Starr

By: Sylvia S. Mader
ISBN-10: 130596733X
/ ISBN-13: 9781305967335

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Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille
Authors: Sylvia S. Mader
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Table of content:

Detailed Contents
Introduction
Chapter 1: The Science of Biology
1.1 Life Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts
Emergent Properties
Life’s Organization
1.2 Life’s Unity
Energy and Nutrients
Homeostasis
DNA Is Hereditary Material
1.3 Life’s Diversity
Engage: Kristofer Helgen, National Geographic Explorer
1.4 Organizing Information About Species
A Rose by Any Other Name
Distinguishing Species
1.5 The Science of Nature
Thinking About Thinking
The Scientific Method
1.6 Examples of Experiments in Biology
Research in the Real World
Potato Chips and Stomachaches
Butterflies and Birds
1.7 Analyzing Experimental Results
Sampling Error
Bias
Objectivity
1.8 The Nature of Science
What Science Is
What Science Is Not
Application: The Secret Life of Earth
Unit 1: Principles of Cellular Life
Chapter 2: Life’s Chemical Basis
2.1 Building Blocks of Matter
Atoms and Elements
Isotopes and Radioisotopes
Engage: Kenneth Sims, National Geographic Explorer
2.2 Why Electrons Matter
Electrons Have Energy
The Importance of Vacancies
2.3 From Atoms to Molecules
Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
2.4 Hydrogen Bonding and Water
Hydrogen Bonds
Water’s Special Properties
Water Is an Excellent Solvent
Water Has Cohesion
Water Stabilizes Temperature
2.5 Acids and Bases
Hydrogen Atoms and pH
Application: Mercury Rising
Chapter 3: Molecules of Life
3.1 The Chemistry of Biology
Carbon, the Stuff of Life
Metabolic Reactions
3.2 Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in Living Systems
Simple Sugars
Short-Chain Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides
3.3 Lipids
Lipids in Living Systems
Fats
Phospholipids
Waxes
Steroids
3.4 Proteins
Building Proteins
From Structure to Function
Primary and Secondary Structure
Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
Finishing Touches
3.5 The Importance of Protein Structure
3.6 Nucleic Acids
Application: Fear of Frying
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
4.1 What, Exactly, Is a Cell
Cell Theory
Components of All Cells
Constraints on Cell Size
4.2 How We See Cells
Engage: Dr. Aydogan Ozcan, National Geographic Explorer
4.3 Cell Membrane Structure
The Fluid Mosaic Model
Proteins Add Function
4.4 Introducing the Prokaryotes
Structural Features
Biofilms
4.5 Introducing the Eukaryotic Cell
General Features of Eukaryotic Cells
The Nucleus
4.6 The Endomembrane System
A Variety of Vesicles
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Bodies
4.7 Mitochondria
4.8 Chloroplasts and Other Plastids
4.9 The Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeletal Elements
Microtubules
Microfilaments
Intermediate Filaments
Cellular Movement
4.10 Cell Surface Specializations
Extracellular Matrices
Cell Junctions
4.11 The Nature of Life
Life Is Squishy
Engage: Dr. Kevin Peter Hand, National Geographic Explorer
Application: Food for Thought
Chapter 5: Ground Rules of Metabolism
5.1 Life Runs on Energy
Energy Disperses
Energy’s One-Way Flow
5.2 Energy in the Molecules of Life
Chemical Bond Energy
Why Earth Does Not Go Up in Flames
Energy In, Energy Out
5.3 How Enzymes Work
The Need for Speed
Influences on Enzyme Activity
5.4 Metabolic Pathways
Controls Over Metabolism
Electron Transfers
5.5 Cofactors
ATP—A Special Coenzyme
5.6 Diffusion and Membranes
Factors That Affect Diffusion
Concentration
Temperature
Size
Charge
Pressure
Osmosis
Turgor
5.7 Membrane Transport Mechanisms
Transport Protein Specificity
Passive Transport
Active Transport
5.8 Membrane Trafficking
Vesicle Movement
Membrane Recycling
Application: A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Chapter 6: Where It Starts—Photosynthesis
6.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Two Stages of Reactions
Where Photosynthesis Occurs
6.2 Sunlight as an Energy Source
Visible Light Drives Photosynthesis
To Catch a Rainbow
6.3 Light-Dependent Reactions
The Noncyclic Pathway
The Cyclic Pathway
6.4 Light-Independent Reactions
The Calvin–Benson Cycle
Photorespiration
6.5 Carbon-Fixing Adaptations of Plants
C4 Plants
CAM Plants
Application: A Burning Concern
Engage: Sanga Moses, National Geographic Explorer
Chapter 7: Releasing Chemical Energy
7.1 Introduction to Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways
Reaction Pathways
7.2 Glycolysis—Sugar Breakdown Begins
Glycolysis Reactions
Comparing Other Pathways
7.3 Acetyl–CoA Formation and the Citric Acid Cycle
7.4 Aerobic Respiration’s Big Energy Payoff
Electron Transfer Phosphorylation
Summing Up
7.5 Fermentation Pathways
Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactate Fermentation
7.6 Food as a Source of Energy
Energy From Dietary Molecules
Fats
Complex Carbohydrates
Proteins
Application: Mitochondrial Malfunction
Unit 2: Genetics
Chapter 8: DNA Structure and Function
8.1 The Discovery of DNA’s Function
Early Clues
A Surprising Result
Final Pieces of Evidence
8.2 Discovery of DNA’s Structure
Building Blocks of DNA
DNA Sequence
8.3 Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Chromosome Structure
Chromosome Number
Engage: Mariana Fuentes, National Geographic Explorer
8.4 How Does a Cell Copy Its DNA
Semiconservative Replication
Directional Synthesis
8.5 Mutations and Their Causes
Engage: Dr. Rosalind Franklin
8.6 Cloning Adult Animals
Application: A Hero Dog’s Golden Clones
Chapter 9: From DNA to Protein
9.1 Introducing Gene Expression
Engage: Dr. John “Jack” Horner, National Geographic Explorer
9.2 Transcription: DNA to RNA
Post-Transcriptional Modifications
9.3 RNA and the Genetic Code
The Messenger: mRNA
The Translators: rRNA and tRNA
9.4 Translation: RNA to Protein
9.5 Consequences of Mutations
Application: The Aptly Acronymed RIPs
Chapter 10: Control of Gene Expression
10.1 How Cells Control Gene Expression
Switching Genes On and Off
DNA–Histone Interactions
Transcription
RNA Processing
RNA Transport
Translation
Post-Translational Modification
Protein Degradation
10.2 Orchestrating Early Development
10.3 Details of Body Form
10.4 Gene Expression in Metabolic Control
The lac Operon
Lactose Metabolism in Mammals
Circadian Rhythms in Plants
10.5 Epigenetics
Application: Between You and Eternity
Chapter 11: How Cells Reproduce
11.1 Multiplication by Division
The Cell Cycle
Mitosis Maintains the Chromosome Number
Control Over the Cell Cycle
Why Cells Divide by Mitosis
11.2 A Closer Look at Mitosis
11.3 Cytoplasmic Division
11.4 Marking Time With Telomeres
11.5 Pathological Mitosis
The Role of Mutations
Cancer
Application: Henrietta’s Immortal Cells
Engage: Dr. Iain Couzin, National Geographic Explorer
Chapter 12: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
12.1 Why Sex
Introducing Alleles
On the Advantages of Sex
Engage: Maurine Neiman, National Geographic Explorer
12.2 Meiosis in Sexual Reproduction
Meiosis Halves the Chromosome Number
How Meiosis Works
Fertilization Restores the Chromosome Number
12.3 A Visual Tour of Meiosis
12.4 How Meiosis Introduces Variations in Traits
Crossing Over
Chromosome Segregation
12.5 Mitosis and Meiosis—An Ancestral Connection
Application: How to Survive for 80 Million Years Without Sex
Chapter 13: Patterns in Inherited Traits
13.1 Mendel, Pea Plants, and Inheritance Patterns
Mendel’s Experiments
Inheritance in Modern Terms
13.2 Mendel’s Law of Segregation
13.3 Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
The Contribution of Crossovers
13.4 Beyond Simple Dominance
Incomplete Dominance
Codominance
Epistasis
Pleiotropy
13.5 Nature and Nurture
Engage: Dr. Gay Bradshaw
13.6 Complex Variation in Traits
Application: Menacing Mucus
Chapter 14: Human Inheritance
14.1 Human Chromosomes
Engage: Dr. Nancy Wexler
14.2 Examples of Autosomal Inheritance Patterns
Autosomal Dominance
Achondroplasia
Huntington’s Disease
Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria
The Autosomal Recessive Pattern
Tay–Sachs Disease
Albinism
14.3 Examples of X-Linked Inheritance Patterns
The X-Linked Recessive Pattern
Red–Green Color Blindness
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Hemophilia
14.4 Changes in Chromosome Structure
Types of Change
Insertions
Duplications
Deletions
Inversions
Translocations
Chromosomes and Evolution
14.5 Changes in Chromosome Number
Down Syndrome
Sex Chromosome Changes
Turner Syndrome
XXX Syndrome
Klinefelter Syndrome
XYY Syndrome
14.6 Genetic Screening
Application: Shades of Skin
Chapter 15: Biotechnology
15.1 Cutting and Pasting DNA
DNA Cloning
Why Clone DNA
15.2 Isolating Genes
DNA Libraries
PCR
15.3 DNA Sequencing
The Human Genome Project
15.4 Genomics
DNA Profiling
15.5 Genetic Engineering
Genetically Modified Organisms
Microorganisms
Plants
Animals
15.6 Editing Genomes
Gene Therapy
CRISPR
Application: Personal Genetic Testing
Unit 3: Principles of Evolution
Chapter 16: Evidence of Evolution
16.1 Early Beliefs, Confusing Discoveries
16.2 A Flurry of New Ideas
Evolution by Natural Selection
16.3 Ancient Evidence
Evidence in Rock Formations
The Fossil Record
Engage: Dr. Paul Sereno, National Geographic Explorer
16.4 Filling in Pieces of the Puzzle
Missing Links
16.5 Drifting Continents, Changing Seas
16.6 Putting Time Into Perspective
16.7 Evidence in Form
Morphological Divergence
Morphological Convergence
16.8 Evidence in Function
Patterns in Animal Development
Application: Reflections of a Distant Past
Chapter 17: Processes of Evolution
17.1 Alleles in Populations
Variation in Shared Traits
An Evolutionary View of Mutations
Allele Frequency
17.2 Genetic Equilibrium
Applying the Hardy–Weinberg Principle
Populations Evolve
17.3 Directional Selection
Selection for an Extreme Form
The Peppered Moth
Warfarin-Resistant Rats
17.4 Stabilizing and Disruptive Selection
Selection for or Against an Intermediate Form
Stabilizing Selection
Disruptive Selection
17.5 Natural Selection and Diversity
Survival of the Sexiest
Maintaining Multiple Alleles
17.6 Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
Genetic Drift
Bottlenecks and the Founder Effect
Gene Flow
17.7 Reproductive Isolation
17.8 Allopatric Speciation
Speciation in Archipelagos
17.9 Other Speciation Models
Sympatric Speciation
Parapatric Speciation
Engage: Dr. Julia J. Day, National Geographic Explorer
17.10 Macroevolution
Patterns of Macroevolution
Stasis
Exaptations
Mass Extinctions
Adaptive Radiation
Coevolution
Evolutionary Theory
17.11 Phylogeny
Cladistics
17.12 Applications of Phylogeny
Conservation Biology
Medical Research
Application: Directional Selection: Superbug Farms
Chapter 18: Life’s Origin and Early Evolution
18.1 Origin of Life’s Building Blocks
Conditions on Early Earth
Sources of Organic Subunits
Lightning-Fueled Atmospheric Reactions
Reactions at Hydrothermal Vents
Delivery From Outer Space
Engage: Dr. Robert Ballard, National Geographic Explorer
18.2 Polymers to Protocells
Properties of Cells
Origin of Metabolism
Origin of the Genome
Protocell Formation
18.3 Early Cellular Life
Traits of the First Cells
Searching for Ancient Life
The Oldest Fossil Cells
Stromatolites and the Rise in Oxygen
Early Eukaryotes
18.4 Origin of Eukaryotes
Unique Eukaryotic Traits
A Mixed Heritage
Evolution of Organelles
Nucleus and Endoplasmic Reticulum
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
18.5 Perspective on the Precambrian
Application: Looking for Life
Unit 4: Evolution and Biodiversity
Chapter 19: Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea
19.1 The Viruses
Virus Structure
Viral Replication
Bacteriophage Replication
HIV Replication
19.2 Viruses and Human Health
Common Viral Diseases
Emerging Viral Diseases
New Flus—Viral Reassortment
Engage: Dr. Nathan Wolfe, National Geographic Explorer
19.3 Bacterial Structure and Function
Cell Size and Structure
Reproduction and Gene Exchange
Metabolic Diversity
19.4 Bacterial Diversity and Ecology
Cyanobacteria
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Proteobacteria
Spirochetes
19.5 Bacterial Effects on Human Health
Normal Microbiota
Toxins and Disease
19.6 The Archaea
Comparisons With Bacteria
Archaeal Diversity
19.7 Phylogeny of Prokaryotes
Identifying Species
Relationships Among Domains
Application: Sharing Viruses
Chapter 20: The Protists
20.1 Protist Classification and Characteristics
A Diverse Collection of Lineages
A Wide Array of Traits
Level of Organization
Metabolism
Habitats
Life Cycles
20.2 Protist Cell Anatomy
Standard Eukaryotic Features
Traits That Vary
Outer Coverings
Motility-Related Structures
Contractile Vacuoles
Chloroplasts
20.3 Excavates—Flagellated Cells
Anaerobic Flagellates
Trypanosomes and Euglenoids
20.4 The SAR Supergroup
Stramenopiles
Alveolates
Rhizarians
20.5 The Deadliest Protists
Life Cycle of Plasmodium
Health Effects of Malaria
Manipulating Its Hosts
Engage: Ken Banks, National Geographic Explorer
20.6 Archaeplastid Protists—Plant Relatives
Red Algae
Green Algae
20.7 Amoebozoans
Amoebas
Slime Molds
20.8 Opisthokont Protists
Application: Toxic Algal Blooms
Chapter 21: Plant Evolution
21.1 Adapting to Life on Land
Structural Adaptations
Life-Cycle Changes
Pollen and Seeds
21.2 Nonvascular plants—Bryophytes
Mosses
Liverworts and Hornworts
21.3 Seedless Vascular Plants
Ferns and Close Relatives
Lycophytes
21.4 History of the Vascular Plants
Tiny Branchers to Coal Forests
Rise of the Seed Plants
Engage: Jeff Benca, National Geographic Explorer
21.5 What Are Gymnosperms
Conifers
Lesser-Known Lineages
21.6 Angiosperms—Flowering Plants
Flowers and Fruits
Angiosperm Lineages
21.7 Keys to Angiosperm Success
Accelerated Life Cycle
Partnerships With Pollinators
Animal-Dispersed Fruits
Application: Saving Seeds
Chapter 22: Fungi
22.1 Fungal Traits and Groups
Characteristics of Fungi
Organization and Structure
Metabolism and Nutrition
Spore Production
Major Groups
22.2 Fungal Life Cycles
Zygote Fungi
Sac Fungi
Club Fungi
22.3 Ecological Roles of Fungi
Nature’s Recyclers
Beneficial Partners
Parasites and Pathogens
Engage: Dr. DeeAnn Reeder, National Geographic Explorer
22.4 Human Uses of Fungi
Application: Spread of Fungal Pathogens
Chapter 23: Animals I: MajorInvertebrate Groups
23.1 Animal Traits and Trends
Shared Traits
Body Plan Variations
23.2 Animal Origins and Diversification
Colonial Origins
Evidence of Early Animals
An Explosion of Diversity
23.3 Sponges
23.4 Cnidarians
Engage: Dr. David Gruber, National Geographic Explorer
23.5 Flatworms
Free-Living Flatworms
Parasitic Flatworms
23.6 Annelids
Polychaetes
Leeches
Oligochaetes
Earthworm Body Plan
Earthworm Ecology
23.7 Mollusks
Gastropods
Bivalves
Cephalopods
23.8 Roundworms
23.9 Arthropod Characteristics
A Jointed Exoskeleton
Specialized Segments
Metamorphosis
23.10 Arthropod Subgroups
Chelicerates
Millipedes and Centipedes
Crustaceans
Insects
23.11 Insect Diversity and Ecology
Characteristics of Insects
Insect Ecology
Health and Economic Effects
23.12 Echinoderms
Application: Medicines From the Sea
Chapter 24: Animals II: The Chordates
24.1 Chordates—Vertebrates and Their Relatives
Chordate Characteristics
Invertebrate Chordates
Overview of Chordate Evolution
24.2 Fishes—Life in Water
Jawless Fishes
Jawed Fishes
Cartilaginous Fishes
Bony Fishes
24.3 Amphibians—The First Tetrapods
The Move to Land
Modern Amphibians
Declining Diversity
24.4 Amniotes
24.5 Modern “Reptiles
Lizards and Snakes
Turtles
Crocodilians
24.6 Birds—Adapted to Flight
24.7 Mammals
Furry or Hairy Milk Makers
Modern Subgroups
24.8 Primates
Primate Characteristics
Modern Subgroups
24.9 A Human–Ape Comparison
24.10 Early Hominins
24.11 The Genus Homo
Early Homo Species
Anatomically Modern Humans
Neanderthals and Denisovans
The Flores Hominins
Engage: Drs. Louise Leakey and Meave Leakey, National Geographic Explorers
24.12 Human Origin and Dispersal
African Origins
Across the Globe
Mixing Genomes
Application: Downsides to Walking Upright
Unit 5: How Plants Work
Chapter 25: Plant Tissues
25.1 The Plant Body
Engage: Dr. Mark Olson, National Geographic Explorer
25.2 Plant Tissues
Simple Tissues
Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Complex Tissues
Dermal Tissue
Vascular Tissue
25.3 Stems
Internal Structure
Variations on a Stem
Stolons
Rhizomes
Bulbs
Corms
Tubers
Cladodes
25.4 Leaves
Internal Structure
25.5 Roots
External Structure
Internal Structure
25.6 Primary Growth
Primary Growth
Secondary Growth
25.7 Tree Rings and Old Secrets
Application: Sequestering Carbon in Forests
Chapter 26: Plant Nutrition and Transport
26.1 Plant Nutrients and Availability in Soil
Properties of Soil
How Soils Change
Engage: Dr. Jerry Glover, National Geographic Explorer
26.2 Root Adaptations for Nutrient Uptake
The Function of Endodermis
Mutualisms
26.3 Water Movement Inside Plants
Cohesion–Tension Theory
26.4 Conserving Water
26.5 Phloem Function
Pressure Flow Theory
Application: Leafy Cleanup
Chapter 27: Reproduction and Development of Flowering Plants
27.1 Flower Form and Function
Floral Structure
Pollination
27.2 A New Generation Begins
Female Gamete Production
Male Gamete Production
Double Fertilization
27.3 Seeds and Fruits
Seeds: Mature Ovules
Fruits: Mature Ovaries
27.4 Asexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants
Agricultural Applications
27.5 Plant Hormones
27.6 Auxin and Cytokinin
27.7 Gibberellin
27.8 Abscisic Acid and Ethylene
Abscisic Acid
Ethylene
27.9 Early Development
Breaking Dormancy
After Germination
27.10 Movement
Environmental Triggers
Gravity
Light
Contact
27.11 Responses to Recurring Environmental Change
Daily Change
Seasonal Change
27.12 Responses to Stress
Defending Against Disease
Plants Do Not Want to Be Eaten
Engage: Dr. Grace Gobbo, National Geographic Explorer
Application: Prescription: Chocolate
Engage: Dr. Dino Martins, National Geographic Explorer
Unit 6: How Animals Work
Chapter 28: Animal Tissues and Organ Systems
28.1 Overview of Animal Body Plans
Levels of Organization
Fluids of the Animal Body
Evolution of Animal Body Plans
28.2 Epithelial Tissues
General Characteristics
Types of Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial Renewal and Cancer
Engage: Dr. Brenda Larison, National Geographic Explorer
28.3 Connective Tissues
General Characteristics
Types of Connective Tissue
28.4 Muscle Tissues
Skeletal Muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
28.5 Nervous Tissues
28.6 Organ Systems
Organs and Organ Systems
28.7 Integument
Components of Human Skin
Sun and the Skin
28.8 Negative Feedback in Homeostasis
Application: Growing Replacement Tissues
Chapter 29: Neural Control
29.1 Organizations of Nervous Systems
Invertebrate Nervous Systems
Nerve Nets
Bilateral Cephalized Systems
The Vertebrate Nervous System
29.2 Cells of the Nervous System
Three Types of Neurons
Neuroglia
29.3 Membrane Potentials
Resting Potential
Action Potential
29.4 A Closer Look at the Action Potential
Reaching Threshold
An All-or-Nothing Signal
Propagation Along an Axon
29.5 The Synapse
Synapse Structure and Function
Signal and Receptor Variety
Synaptic Integration
Drugs That Act at Synapses
29.6 The Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Resting and Digesting
Fight or Flight
29.7 Central Nervous System Tissues and Fluid
White Matter and Gray Matter
Cerebrospinal Fluid
29.8 The Spinal Cord
Structure and Function
Anesthesia and Injury
29.9 The Vertebrate Brain
Engage: Dr. Diana Reiss, National Geographic Explorer
29.10 The Cerebral Cortex
29.11 Emotion and Memory
The Limbic System
Making Memories
29.12 Studying Brain Function
Observing Electrical Activity
Monitoring Metabolism
Examining Brain Tissue
Application: Impacts of Concussions
Chapter 30: Sensory Perception
30.1 Detecting Sensory Stimuli
Diversity of Sensory Receptors
Assessing Sensory Input
Sensation Versus Perception
30.2 General Senses
Somatic and Visceral Sensation
Pain and Pain Relief
30.3 The Chemical Senses
Sense of Smell
Sense of Taste
30.4 Light and Vision
Diversity of Visual Systems
Anatomy of the Human Eye
Focusing Mechanisms
30.5 The Human Retina
Detecting Light
Visual Processing
30.6 Common Vision Disorders
Color Blindness
Failure to Focus
Loss of Vision
30.7 Hearing
Properties of Sound
Vertebrate Hearing
Engage: Dr. Fernando Montealegre-Z, National Geographic Explorer
30.8 Balance and Equilibrium
Application: Neuroprostheses
Chapter 31: Endocrine Control
31.1 Animal Hormones
Signals That Travel in Blood
Types of Hormones
Hormone Receptor Variation
31.2 The Human Endocrine System
31.3 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Posterior Pituitary Function
Anterior Pituitary Function
Hormonal Growth Disorders
31.4 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Metabolic and Developmental Effects of Thyroid Hormone
Hormonal Regulation of Blood Calcium Level
31.5 The Pineal Gland
31.6 The Adrenal Glands
Hormones, Stress, and Health
31.7 The Gonads
31.8 The Pancreas
Regulation of Blood Sugar
Diabetes
31.9 Invertebrate Hormones
Application: Endocrine Disruptors
Engage: Dr. Tyrone Hayes, National Geographic Explorer
Chapter 32: Structural Support and Movement
32.1 Animal Locomotion
Engage: Dr. Kakani Katija Young, National Geographic Explorer
32.2 Types of Skeletons
Invertebrate Skeletons
The Vertebrate Endoskeleton
32.3 Bone Structure and Function
Bone Anatomy
Bone Formation and Turnover
Joints: Where Bones Meet
32.4 Skeletal Muscle Functions
32.5 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
32.6 The Sliding-Filament Model
32.7 Control of Muscle Contraction
The Motor Signal Pathway
Motor Units
32.8 Fueling Muscle Contraction
Energy-Releasing Pathways
Types of Muscle Fibers
Application: Exercise and Inactivity
Chapter 33: Circulation
33.1 Circulatory Systems
Open and Closed Systems
Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
33.2 Human Circulatory System
The Pulmonary Circuit
The Systemic Circuit
33.3 The Human Heart
The Cardiac Cycle
Setting the Pace
33.4 Components of Blood
Plasma
Cellular Components
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Platelets
33.5 From the Heart to the Tissues
Rapid Transport in Arteries
Adjusting Flow at Arterioles
33.6 Blood Pressure
33.7 Capillary Exchange
33.8 Returning Blood to the Heart
Venules and Veins
Impaired Venous Return
33.9 Cardiovascular Disorders
Arrhythmias
Atherosclerosis
Heart Disease and Stroke
33.10 The Lymphatic System
Lymph Vascular System
Lymphoid Tissues
Application: When the Heart Stops
Chapter 34: Immunity
34.1 Integrated Responses to Threats
Three Lines of Defense
The Defenders
34.2 The First Line of Defense—Surface Barriers
Biological Barriers
Physiological and Anatomical Barriers
34.3 Mechanisms of Innate Immunity
Complement Activation
Phagocytosis
Inflammation
Fever
34.4 Antigen Receptors
Antigen Receptor Diversity
34.5 Overview of Adaptive Immunity
Two Arms of Adaptive Immunity
Antigen Processing
34.6 Adaptive Immunity I: An Antibody-Mediated Response
Antibodies in ABO Blood Typing
34.7 Adaptive Immunity II: The Cell-Mediated Response
Cytotoxic T Cells: Activation and Action
The Role of NK Cells
Engage: Dr. Mark Merchant, National Geographic Explorer
34.8 Immunity Gone Wrong
Overly Vigorous Responses
Allergies
Acute Illnesses
Autoimmunity
Immune Evasion
34.9 AIDS
HIV Revisited
Transmission
Testing
Treatments
Testing
Prevention
Application: Community Immunity
Chapter 35: Respiration
35.1 Respiratory Gas Exchange
Sites of Gas Exchange
Factors Affecting Gas Exchange
35.2 Invertebrate Respiratory Organs
35.3 Vertebrate Respiratory Systems
Fish Gills
Vertebrate Lungs
35.4 Human Respiratory System
The Airways
The Lungs
Muscles of Respiration
35.5 How We Breathe
The Respiratory Cycle
Control of Breathing
Choking—A Blocked Airway
35.6 Gas Exchange and Transport
The Respiratory Membrane
Oxygen Transport
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Engage: Dr. Cynthia Beall, National Geographic Explorer
35.7 Respiratory Diseases and Disorders
Interrupted Breathing
Lung Diseases and Disorders
Bronchitis, Asthma, and Emphysema
Application: Effects of Smoking
Chapter 36: Digestion and Human Nutrition
36.1 Evolution of Digestive Systems
Sites of Digestion
Intracellular Digestion
Extracellular Digestion
Sac or Tube
Specialized Regions
36.2 Human Digestive Tract
36.3 Taking in Food
Mammalian Mouths
Bird Beaks
36.4 The Stomach
Structure and Function
Stomach Disorders
36.5 The Small Intestine
36.6 From Digestion to Absorption
Carbohydrate Digestion
Protein Digestion
Fat Digestion
Water Uptake
36.7 The Large Intestine
36.8 Metabolism of Absorbed Organic Compounds
36.9 Vitamins and Minerals
Engage: Dr. Christopher Golden, National Geographic Explorer
36.10 Components of a Healthy Diet
Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains
Heart-Healthy Oils
Lean Meat and Low-Fat Dairy
Minimal Added Salt and Sugar
36.11 Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Application: The Obesity Epidemic
Chapter 37: Maintaining the Internal Environment
37.1 Water and Solute Balance
Gains and Losses of Water and Solutes
Excretory Organs
Nephridia
Malpighian Tubules
Kidneys
37.2 Human Urinary System
Components of the System
Kidney Anatomy
The Nephrons
Tubular Components
Blood Vessels
37.3 Urine Formation and Concentration
Three Processes Form Urine
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
Concentrating the Urine
37.4 Kidney Disorders
37.5 Urine Tests
Engage: Dr. Cheryl Knott, National Geographic Explorer
37.6 Maintaining Body Temperature
Heat Gains and Losses
Modes of Thermoregulation
Vertebrate Responses to Cold
Vertebrate Responses to Heat
37.7 Human Thermoregulation
Keeping Cool
Staying Warm
Application: Genetic Adaptation to Differing Climates
Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development
38.1 Mechanisms of Animal Reproduction
Asexual or Sexual
Variation Among Sexual Reproducers
38.2 Stages of Animal Development
Gametes Form and Unite
Cleavage
Gastrulation
Tissues and Organs Form
38.3 Tissue and Organ Formation
Cell Differentiation
Embryonic Induction
Apoptosis
Cell Migrations
38.4 Evolutionary Developmental Biology
Constraints on Body Plans
Developmental Mutations
38.5 Overview of Human Development
38.6 Reproductive System of Human Females
Female Reproductive Anatomy
Egg Production and Release
38.7 Female Reproductive Cycles
Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles
From Puberty to Menopause
Estrous Cycles
38.8 Human Male Sexual Organs
Functions of the Testes
Ducts and Accessory Glands
Engage: Dr. Stewart C. Nicol, National Geographic Explorer
38.9 Bringing Gametes Together
Sexual Intercourse
The Sperm’s Journey
Fertilization
38.10 Birth Control
38.11 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
38.12 Early Human Development
38.13 Emergence of Human Features
38.14 Prenatal Health and Nutrition
Function of the Placenta
Effects of Maternal Health and Behavior
Maternal Nutrition
Teratogens
Investigating Birth Defects
38.15 Birth and Lactation
Childbirth
Lactation
Application: Reproductive Technology
Unit 7: Principles of Ecology
Chapter 39: Animal Behavior
39.1 Factors Affecting Behavior
Foraging in Fruit Flies
Pair-Bonding in Voles
Social Dominance in Cichlids
39.2 Instinct and Learning
Instinctive Behavior
Learned Behavior
Time-Sensitive Learning
Conditioned Responses
Habituation
Spatial Learning
Social Learning
Imitative Learning
39.3 Animal Communication
Types of Communication Signals
Eavesdroppers and Fake Signals
Engage: Dr. Isabelle Charrier, National Geographic Explorer
39.4 Reproductive and Parenting Behavior
Mating Systems
Parental Care
39.5 Group Living and Social Behavior
Benefits of Grouping
Costs of Group Living
Evolution of Cooperation
39.6 Eusocial Animals
Application: Can You Hear Me Now
Chapter 40: Population Ecology
40.1 Characteristics of a Population
Size, Density, and Distribution
Sampling a Population
Engage: Dr. Karen DeMatteo, National Geographic Explorer
40.2 Population Size and Exponential Growth
Immigration and Emigration
Zero to Exponential Growth
Biotic Potential
40.3 Limits on Population Growth
Density-Dependent Factors
Logistic Growth
Density-Independent Factors
40.4 Life History Patterns
Timing of Births and Deaths
r-Selection and K-Selection
40.5 Predation Effects on Life History
An Experimental Study
Collapse of a Fishery
40.6 Human Population Growth
Expansions and Innovations
Fertility and Future Growth
40.7 Economic Effects and Resource Consumption
A Demographic Transition
Development and Consumption
Application: Managing Canada Geese
Chapter 41: Community Ecology
41.1 Factors That Shape Communities
41.2 Mutualism
41.3 Interspecific Competition
Types of Competition
Competitive Exclusion
Resource Partitioning
Engage: Dr. Nayuta Yamashita, National Geographic Explorer
41.4 Predation and Herbivory
Predator and Prey Abundance
Predator–Prey Arms Races
Plant–Herbivore Arms Race
41.5 Parasites and Parasitoids
Parasitism
Parasitoids
Biological Pest Control
Brood Parasitism
41.6 How Communities Change Over Time
Ecological Succession
Effects of Disturbance
41.7 Single-Species Effects
Keystone Species
Exotic and Endemic Species
41.8 Island Biogeography
Application: Fighting Foreign Fire Ants
Chapter 42: Ecosystems
42.1 The Nature of Ecosystems
Producers and Consumers
Energy Flows, Nutrients Cycle
Trophic Structure
42.2 Depicting Trophic Structure
Food Webs
Ecological Pyramids
42.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
42.4 The Water Cycle
Engage: Jonathan Waterman, National Geographic Explorer
42.5 The Carbon Cycle
Carbon Reservoirs and Flow
The Greenhouse Effect
42.6 The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Reservoirs and Flow
Alterations to the Cycle
42.7 The Phosphorus Cycle
Application: Toxic Transfers
Chapter 43: The Biosphere
43.1 Global Air Circulation Patterns
Seasonal Effects
Air Circulation and Rainfall
Surface Wind Patterns
43.2 Oceans and Climate
Ocean Currents
Regional Effects
43.3 Major Biomes
Differences Among Biomes
Similarities Within a Biome
43.4 Tropical Rain Forests
43.5 Cooler Climate Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Coniferous Forests
43.6 Fire-Adapted Biomes
43.7 Deserts
Plant Adaptations to Drought
Desert Crust
43.8 Arctic Tundra
Engage: Dr. Katey Walter Anthony, National Geographic Explorer
43.9 Freshwater Ecosystems
Lakes
Nutrient Content and Succession
Seasonal Changes
Streams and Rivers
The Role of Dissolved Oxygen
43.10 Coastal and Coral Ecosystems
Coastal Wetlands
Rocky and Sandy Seashores
Coral Reefs
43.11 The Open Ocean
Application: Effects of El Niño
Chapter 44: Human Effectson the Biosphere
44.1 Threatened and Endangered Species
Causes of Species Decline
Overharvesting
Habitat Degradation and Fragmentation
The Unknown Losses
Engage: Dr. Paula Kahumbu, National Geographic Explorer
44.2 Desertification and Deforestation
Desertification
Deforestation
44.3 Effects of Pollution
Talking Trash
Atmospheric Deposition
Acid Deposition
Ammonium Deposition
Mercury Deposition
44.4 Ozone Depletion
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
Near-Ground Ozone Pollution
44.5 Global Climate Change
44.6 Conservation Biology
The Value of Biodiversity
Setting Priorities
Preservation and Restoration
44.7 Reducing Human Impacts
Application: Citizen Scientists
Appendices
I: Periodic Table of the Elements
II: The Amino Acids
III: A Closer Look at Some Major Metabolic Pathways
IV: A Plain English Map of the Human Chromosomes
V: Restless Earth—Life’s Changing Geologic Stage
VI: Units of Measure
VII: Answers to Self-Assessments/Genetics Problems
Glossary
Index

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