Table of contents:
CHAPTER 1. An Introduction to the Human Body.
1.1: The human body is composed of six levels of structural organization and contains eleven organ systems.
1.2: The human body carries on basic life processes that distinguish it from nonliving objects.
1.3: Homeostasis is controlled through feedback systems.
1.4: The human body is described using the anatomical position and specific terms.
1.5: Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs.
1.6: Serous membranes line the walls of body cavities and cover the organs within them.
1.7: The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into regions or quadrants.
CHAPTER 2. The Chemical Level of Organization.
2.1 Chemical elements are composed of small units called atoms.
2.2 Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
2.3 Chemical reactions occur when atoms combine with or separate from other atoms.
2.4 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, acids, and bases.
2.5 Organic molecules are large carbon-based molecules that carry out complex functions in living systems.
2.6 Carbohydrates function as building blocks and sources of energy.
2.7 Lipids are important for cell membrane structure, energy storage, and hormone production.
2.8 Proteins are amino acid complexes serving many diverse roles.
2.9 Nucleic acids contain genetic material and function in protein synthesis.
2.10 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the principal energy-transferring molecule in living systems.
CHAPTER 3. The Cellular Level of Organization.
3.1 The principal parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.
3.2 The plasma membrane contains the cytoplasm and regulates exchanges with the extracellular environment.
3.3 Transport of a substance across the plasma membrane occurs by both passive and active processes.
3.4 Cytoplasm consists of the cytosol and organelles.
3.5 The nucleus contains nucleoli and genes.
3.6 Cells make proteins by transcribing and translating the genetic information contained in DNA.
3.7 Cell division allows the replacement of cells and the production of new cells.
CHAPTER 4. The Tissue Level of Organization.
4.1 Human body tissues can be classified as epithelial, connective, muscle, or nervous.
4.2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines organs and body cavities, or secretes substances.
4.3 Connective tissue binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and helps provide immunity.
4.4 Membranes cover the surface of the body, line body cavities, and cover organs.
4.5 Muscle tissue generates the physical force needed to make body structures move.
4.6 Nervous tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia.
4.7 The ability of an injured tissue to repair itself depends on the extent of damage and the regenerative ability of the injured tissue.BODY SYSTEMS.
CHAPTER 5. The Integumentary System.
5.1 Skin is composed of a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis, and is anchored by the hypodermis.
5.2 The layers of the epidermis include the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.
5.3 The dermis contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, sensory receptors, hair follicles, and glands.
5.4 Skin color is a result of the pigments melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin.
5.5 The functions of hair, skin glands, and nails include protection and body temperature regulation.
5.6 Skin damage sets in motion a sequence of events that repairs the skin to its normal (or near-normal) structure and function.
5.7 Skin regulates body temperature, protects underlying tissues, provide